Who’s Who in Market Research

Corrections or additions?

This article by Flora Davis was prepared for the September 8, 2004

issue of U.S. 1 Newspaper. All rights reserved.

What Do You Think? Gallup Says It Still Matters

In 1936 Princeton resident George Gallup bet his shirt that, by using

scientific methods, he could accurately predict the winner of the

presidential election. He succeeded and achieved instant fame. Thus,

the opinion polling industry was born in the small college town of

Princeton, which became for a time the polling capital of the United

States. In a 1940 book, Gallup laid out his passionate belief that

elected representatives could and should use polling to "monitor the

pulse of democracy" by taking public opinion into account when they

made decisions on the public’s behalf.

Fast forward 64 years to the summer of 2004. Frank Newport,

editor-in-chief of the Gallup Poll, has just published a new book

called Polling Matters: Why Leaders Must Listen to the Wisdom of the

People (Warner Books). Like Gallup before him, Newport argues that

opinion polling is the way to ensure that the country really is

governed by the will of the people. His book also present evidence

that this is not the way the system works today.

A lot has happened to opinion polling, the political process, and

Princeton in between the two publishing events. Many of those changes

will be evident when Frank Newport gives a talk, followed by a book

signing, at Barnes and Noble at Marketfair on Thursday, September 9,

at 7 p.m.

If you watch television, particularly CNN, Newport’s square-jawed face

will be familiar to you. One of the country’s top pollsters and

pundits, he is featured on CNN’s Gallup Poll segments, broadcast from

the firm’s Carnegie Center office, and is a frequent guest on talk

shows. More than 1,500 radio stations carry his twice-a-week features

about polling. His current role as media spokesman for the Gallup Poll

represents a coming together of his experience in two seemingly

disparate fields: the somewhat arcane science of survey research and

broadcast journalism.

Frank Newport grew up in Texas, the son of a Baptist minister and

theologian. His parents led study tours around the world, particularly

to the Middle East and the Holy Land. Newport was a broadcasting major

at Baylor University, Class of 1970. In fact, he worked his way

through college as a radio announcer and TV sports and news anchor.

While he was doing that, however, he fell in love with sociology, and

he went on to earn a PhD in that discipline at the University of

Michigan. Sociology taught him about scientific surveys, one of the

primary research tools social scientists use.

After a four-year stint teaching at the University of Missouri-St.

Louis, Newport returned to broadcasting as a radio talk show host in

Houston, Texas. In the early 1980s, he took a job with a polling and

market research firm, eventually becoming a partner in the company.

"We did marketing research for TV and radio stations, newspapers and

magazines," he says. The job enabled him to combine his interests in

survey research and journalism.

In the late 1980s a Nebraska corporation, Selection Research, bought

Newport’s firm. The following year it also bought Gallup (founder

George Gallup had died in 1984), and in 1990, Newport moved to

Princeton to become editor-in-chief of the Gallup Poll. "I would say

that my experience in radio and television probably helps me

communicate poll results more effectively," he says.

Frank Newport’s wife, Kim, is the vice president of the Hopewell

school board, which is pretty much a full-time job, he says. The

Newports have four children. Their oldest son is a nuclear submarine

officer. He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy, where one of the

Newport daughters is currently enrolled. Their second son worked for

Gallup this last summer but has now moved on to a PhD program at MIT.

U.S. 1 ran an article about the successful website design business he

created while he was in high school (May 4, 2000). The youngest

Newport daughter is a high school senior.

Asked what he does for relaxation, Newport states ruefully that he

"reads about polls on the Internet." Then he recalls that he likes to

hike with his family. In fact, they are "highpointers," and their goal

is to climb to the highest point in every state in the U.S. They share

this esoteric pastime with many other American – Newport mentions the

highpointer clubs and websites on the Internet. So far, his family has

summited in 28 states, not always by climbing. He notes that the

highest point in Delaware is north of Wilmington in the middle of an

intersection. In New Jersey, at High Point (across the Delaware from

Port Jervis, New York), you simply get out of your car and walk 20

feet. In many other states, however, summiting requires rock climbing

or at least a long, steep hike. "I’m not sure we’ll ever do Mt.

McKinley in Alaska," says Newport.

The prestigious Gallup Poll, which Newport heads, provides a very

small part of the revenue that supports the overall Gallup

Organization. The corporation’s bread and butter is the marketing

research it does for business and industry: surveying a Fortune 100

company’s employees, for example, to gauge their morale, or its

customers to find out how satisfied they are. The results are seldom

made public. In contrast, public opinion polling operates according to

ethical standards that dictate that the media and the public have a

right to know not only the results but exactly how the poll was

conducted.

Gallup has always done both market research and opinion polling, as

have most, if not all, polling companies. "Many people don’t know

this," says Newport, "but Dr. George Gallup was actually doing

marketing research for businesses before he began to do polling in the

1930s." For his PhD dissertation, Gallup worked with newspapers,

surveying their readers to find out which articles and news items

interested them. Princeton became the birthplace of public opinion

polling largely because he took a job as head of research for a New

York City ad agency, decided to commute, and bought a farm near

Princeton Airport. Gallup continued to work for the agency while

growing his polling sideline, a firm he founded in 1935 that was

initially called the American Institute of Public Opinion. As the

company grew, it combined opinion surveys and marketing research.

The Gallup poll may have been the mother of all public opinion polls,

but it was not the earliest effort to measure people’s intentions. In

1824, newspapers began to do straw polls before elections. They would

print a sample ballot in the paper and invite readers to clip it and

send in the names of the individuals they intended to vote for.

Sometimes newspapers mailed the ballot instead or had interviewers

accost people in the streets and hand it to them. None of these

haphazard methods reached anything like a representative sample of the

voters.

Modern polling was propelled into the spotlight in 1936 because of a

contest between George Gallup and a weekly called the Literary Digest.

This is a story pollsters love to tell.

From 1916 on, Digest straw polls correctly predicted the winner in

every presidential election. The people who designed them worked on

the theory that all they had to do was send out enough ballots. Every

four years before the presidential election, a staff of several

thousand stuffed millions of sample ballots into envelopes that also

happened to contain subscription offers. The results were surprisingly

accurate.

In the months before the 1936 election, the Digest mailed ballots to

more than 10 million people, and more than 2 million returned them.

The canvassers constructed their mailing list by using phone

directories and lists of car registrations and of Digest subscribers.

At the time, many voters could not afford a car, a phone, or even a

subscription.

In 1936 George Gallup’s tiny, recently hatched polling firm was

located across from Princeton University’s main gate at 90 Nassau

Street in a one-room office furnished with a single desk, a telephone,

and a typewriter. Since the previous year, Gallup had been writing a

weekly column called "America Speaks!" that appeared in newspapers

across the country. In it, he reported on new, nationwide public

opinion polls that investigated what Americans thought about the

issues of the day. Was it indecent for a woman to wear shorts on the

street? Sixty-three percent thought it was. Of course, his polls also

tackled weightier subjects.

Gallup knew that the Digest’s huge samples did not guarantee accuracy.

He himself used a scientific method called quota sampling, and though

it relied on paper ballots, it carefully canvassed a much smaller

number of people chosen because they were representative of the

electorate.

To promote his column, Gallup promised to give subscribing newspapers

their money back if he could not predict the outcome of the 1936

presidential campaign more accurately than the Literary Digest did. He

took a huge risk. He was sampling 15,000 people nationwide (today, a

comparable poll would sample 1,500) and that was expensive. He covered

the cost by selling his column to the newspapers, which would get a

total refund if he was wrong.

In early October, 1936, the Digest’s straw polling predicted a

landslide for Republican Alf Landon, while Gallup’s poll indicated

that Franklin Delano Roosevelt would win easily. Roosevelt was elected

by a margin even greater than Gallup had anticipated. The fact that

the Digest’s massive poll left out low-income voters probably made the

crucial difference. In 1936 in the depths of the Depression, the poor

were drawn to FDR, while those who were comfortably fixed were more

likely to vote Republican.

Though Gallup won his wager, his numbers were far enough off that he

decided never to use mailed ballots again because evidently the "lower

strata" were less likely to return them. From that time on, his

interviewers went door-to-door. During the 1936 election, two other

researchers, Elmo Roper and Archibald Crossley, also polled using the

scientific method and correctly predicted a win for Roosevelt.

In the years that followed, a number of polling firms sprang up in

Princeton, some founded by people who worked with Gallup and then left

to start their own companies. Opinion Research was one, formed in 1938

by Claude Robinson. Princeton became one of the centers of the early

polling industry much as, decades later, Silicon Valley became a

center for high-tech electronics after Hewlett Packard located there.

Gallup quickly became the best-known spokesman for the scientific

method of polling partly because of his insistence that it could play

a vital role in a democracy by monitoring the opinions of ordinary

people. His 1940 book, The Pulse of Democracy, argued that polling

could become the equivalent of a New England town meeting on a

national scale.

However, Gallup faced a lot of skepticism. Despite his triumph in the

1936 election, many people refused to believe that, by questioning a

representative sample of mere thousands of individuals, anyone could

accurately divine the opinions of tens of millions. To prove the

validity of his method, Gallup focused for a time on correctly

forecasting election results.

Gallup and other pioneers of scientific polling used a method known as

quota sampling, which divided the group being studied – the population

of New Jersey, for example – into subgroups according to salient

characteristics: race, gender, age, education, income, and so on. Then

it sampled a much smaller number of individuals in the same

proportions. If 12 percent of New Jersey residents were African

American, for example, polling interviewers made sure that 12 percent

of their respondents were African American. If half of all New

Jerseyans were female, half the respondents must be female, and so on.

As Frank Newport points out in Polling Matters, the problem is that a

poll cannot divide up a population based on every conceivable

characteristic that might be important. If it leaves out income, for

example, then all the blacks in the sample may be suburbanites, and

their opinions may not accurately represent those of African Americans

who live in the inner city.

By the mid 1940s, statisticians were insisting that quota sampling was

flawed, partly because interviewers could unconsciously bias the

results by approaching mostly the kind of people they were comfortable

with. The interviewers tended to be middle class. As a result, the

polls reflected a slight bias supporting Republican positions on

policy issues, and Gallup’s presidential forecasts tended to

overestimate the Republican vote.

The statisticians argued that a method called random sampling was more

accurate, but Gallup, Roper and Crossley, among others, resisted the

change to this more costly technique. Newport explains that, to do

random sampling, a polling organization might take a list of every

resident in New Jersey and interview every one hundredth person on it.

Every member of the population would then have an equal chance of

becoming part of the sample. No one in any category would be

systematically overlooked, and the mix of people in the sample would

be much more likely to reflect the mix in the population.

National polls today use random sampling and interview just 1,000 to

1,500 individuals. According to Newport, studies have shown that

random samples of 1,000 or even less have a high probability of

accurately representing the population from which they are drawn,

regardless of how big that population is. This statistical magic may

remind the lay person of the old saw, "There are lies, damned lies,

and statistics." However, the method has been thoroughly vindicated

over the years.

Back in the mid 1940s, a congressional investigation simultaneously

praised Gallup for pioneering the science of polling and criticized

him because he had not switched to random sampling. Then came the 1948

presidential race, a debacle for pollsters. On the eve of the

election, the Gallup, Roper and Crossley polls all showed Dewey ahead

by at least 10 points. Before the actual results came in, a number of

publications went to press with stories about Dewey’s victory. When

Truman won, that called polling’s reliability into question. Trust in

it was not fully restored until the 1960s.

During that decade, campaign polling took off as politicians began to

commission surveys to pick up information they could use to win an

election. Exit polls were invented in the mid 1960s: interviewers,

stationed near polling places, approached people to find out who they

had just voted for. Media polls got their start in 1967, when CBS

became the first news organization to establish its own polling

operation.

Over the years, new technologies changed the way surveys are done, and

the campaign pollsters were among the beneficiaries. The advent of

computers and statistical software, for example, offered quick and

easy ways to analyze the electorate. In 1972, the Nixon campaign used

them to map every voting precinct in the nation and identify the

blocks where swing voters lived.

According to Frank Newport, however, the humble telephone was the

instrument of "the biggest change yet in modern polling." The

transition from face-to-face interviews, conducted in respondents’

homes, to phone polls finally happened in the 1980s. By that time,

most American households had a telephone and direct dialing was

available. Polling organizations happily made the switch because phone

interviews are less costly and can provide almost instantaneous

results.

Today, political campaigns poll almost constantly, using computers and

phones, to find out where candidates need to put in more effort – for

example, whether to invest the next three days in Iowa or New

Hampshire. Polling also identifies the themes that voters respond to

and the best ways to present them. According to Newport, the surveys

that politicians commission are highly accurate but are intended for

internal consumption only. He notes, however, that sometimes the

pollsters are not above leaking partial results to the press to try to

make their candidate look good.

Despite all the polling politicians do during campaigns, few pay

attention to polls between elections, says Newport. They do not

commission surveys to find out where the public stands on issues, nor

do they pay much attention to other people’s polls.

"That’s one of the major reasons I wanted to write my book," Newport

explains, "to say we have to look at these things differently. Polling

is a brilliant, miraculous, scientific tool if used correctly, and the

collective voices of the public can be the single best way to guide

our society." He believes it is a mistake to put control in the hands

of the elite and ignore the voice of the people.

But are the people wise? In Polling Matters, Newport writes that,

"Americans in a randomly selected poll sample come from all areas and

walks of life. . . The blend of the experience and background that is

accessed provides an extraordinarily valuable resource to use in

directing and guiding the society’s progress."

Newport notes that many politicians value their own personal judgment

more than they do the views of the people they represent. They are

proud of the fact that they do not consult the polls when making

decisions. While campaigning in 2000, George W. Bush said, "I don’t

need polls to tell me how to think. If elected president, I will not

use my office to reflect public opinion." Many years earlier, Winston

Churchill, Britain’s famous prime minister, stated that, "Nothing is

more dangerous than to live in the temperamental atmosphere of a

Gallup poll, always taking one’s temperature. There is only one duty,

only one safe course, and that is to be right and not to fear to do or

say what you believe to be right."

Traditionally, Americans admire loners and innovative thinkers. In

addition, as a nation, we have been debating how much weight elected

representatives should give to public opinion since 1787 and 1788,

when the Federalist Papers first outlined what an American democracy

might look like.

Newport, however, believes that being elected does not make anyone a

genius overnight, and that when a lot of average people’s opinions are

combined, they can add up to great wisdom. He does not argue that

politicians should slavishly follow the dictates of public opinion –

only that they should track it and take it into account between

elections.

Elected officials often say they do not need to consult polls because

they are constantly bombarded with letters, phone calls and E-mails

from voters, and in addition they meet their constituents face-to-face

whenever they get back to their district. It is paradoxical, Newport

says, that politicians are proud of doing all those things and yet are

unwilling to look at scientific polls, which offer a much more

accurate reflection of voters’ concerns and opinions. Meanwhile,

elected representatives accept input from lobbyists, special

interests, and party leaders – hardly a random sample of their

constituents.

Not surprisingly, studies show that elected representatives often do

not vote the way the people they represent want them to. Newport cites

one of the more dramatic examples: In 1998 members of the House of

Representatives chose to impeach President Bill Clinton even though

almost every poll showed that the majority of Americans did not agree

with that decision.

According to surveys, Americans today have little confidence in

Congress. In fact, the public rates its elected representatives in

Washington, D.C., only slightly above lawyers and car salesmen for

honesty and ethics. Newport believes that voter turnout is low partly

because people see no point in voting since the individuals they elect

will probably ignore their wishes once they are in office. He also

notes that at least 27 states now permit direct initiatives and

referendums because the people distrust their representatives. The

recall of California’s governor in 2003 would appear to reflect the

same loss of confidence. The deposed governor, Gray Davis, said

afterward, "I didn’t stay in touch with the people. That’s clearly my

biggest regret."

Newport cites a study that found that an overwhelming majority of

Americans believe public opinion should have more of an influence over

government decisions. "The public’s feeling of being marginalized from

government decision making is now at an all time high," he writes.

Nevertheless, many people remain skeptical about opinion polling. How

does a poll randomly sample 200 million American adults by telephone,

especially since as many as 30 percent of phone numbers are unlisted?

Newport’s book explains: Even an unlisted number has to have an area

code and exchange – for example, the area code for Princeton is 609,

and for many local phones, the exchange is 924. Within any given area

code and exchange, there are 10,000 combinations for the last four

digits. A computer can list all of those and can do it for all the

area codes and exchanges in the country. Every phone number then has

an equal chance of getting into the sample.

Let us say that a polling organization randomly selects 2,000

households from the national phone list, a sample intended to

represent 100 million households all over the country. Interviewers

start to contact them. Some numbers turn out to be non-working; other

calls are answered by businesses, rather than by individuals at home.

That brings the sample down to 1,600. Another 400 numbers are useless

because they are fax lines or there is no answer. That leaves the poll

with 1,200 telephone numbers where interviewers reach a live human

being. If 200 decline to participate in the poll, that still leaves a

sample of 1,000, and 1,000 is enough.

Newport readily acknowledges that the wording of a polling question

can influence the response. In fact, his book gives numerous examples.

He argues, however, that responses impacted by wording can actually

help pollsters understand how the public views complex issues. For

instance, when asked if they favor the death penalty for a person

convicted of murder, 74 percent of Americans generally say yes. If

they are asked instead, "Which is the better penalty for murder, death

or life imprisonment with absolutely no possibility of parole?" only

53 percent will choose death.

This suggests to Newport that the "gut instinct" for the majority of

Americans is to support the death penalty, but that some are not at

all adamant about it and prefer life imprisonment with no possibility

of parole when that is suggested as an alternative.

The fact that the perceived race of the interviewer can affect polling

results can also be illuminating. The effect is small, Newport says,

and happens only with certain race-sensitive issues. On a question

about affirmative action, white respondents may give slightly

different answers depending on whether they believe the interviewer is

also white or is African American. "That shows that there’s a norm out

there in society that tells whites that you should express more

race-sensitive responses to blacks than to whites. That’s fascinating

to me," Newport says.

Not all polls are trustworthy. Asked what citizens should watch out

for during the presidential election campaign, Newport suggests that,

when presented with survey results, people consider who sponsored and

conducted the poll. Reputable firms like Gallup might make an

occasional mistake, but they use scientific methods and try hard to do

a good and accurate job. Poll results from unknown organizations

should be treated with more caution.

Secondly, Newport suggests looking at the wording of questions in

conjunction with the results. "There’s no such thing as a right or

wrong question," he states, "but each question carries with it certain

emphases and you need to understand the answers in that context." On

abortion, if the question is "Do you favor or oppose a woman killing a

baby in the womb?" the results will be different from responses to a

question that asks, "Do you favor or oppose a woman having the right

to choose in pregnancy?" By looking at the results of the two

questions together, survey analysts learn that public opinion moves

within a 20 point range based on what part of the argument is

emphasized, reflecting the complexity of American attitudes on the

issue.

Newport cautions against polls that ask one question about a topic

such as abortion and then state categorically that the majority of

Americans believe one thing or another. Pollsters need to ask a number

of questions and then repeat them over time, he says, to understand

the nuances of public opinion and track changes in it. "Public opinion

is important and understandable if we take the time to figure it out,"

he states, "but that’s not simple and not easy. If you ask me, where

does America stand on abortion or on the war in Iraq, you have to give

me a while to describe that for you."

Opinion polling is apparently a growth industry today, and it has

actually been helped by the no-call lists that are the bane of

telemarketers. Protected from the onslaught of sales calls, people now

cooperate more readily with a credible request to participate in a

poll. In fact, Newport says that more opinion polls are being done

today than ever before, and there are more media outlets for them.

At the moment, the greater Princeton area has 50 companies,

representing nearly 1,300 jobs, that do opinion polling and/or market

research. In one way or another, many of them spun off from Gallup, a

phenomenon that is still occurring. Just 14 or 15 years ago, Newport

recalls, Andy Kohut, president of the Gallup Organization, left to

found Princeton Survey Research Associates, now at 911 Commons Way.

Kohut has since moved on and is now director of the Pew Research

Center for the People and the Press in Washington, D.C.

Despite Princeton’s current plethora of survey firms, however, it is

no longer the polling capital of the United States, says Newport. As

companies have grown large or have been bought by other corporations,

they have located their headquarters and interviewing centers

elsewhere. For example, though the Gallup Poll proudly maintains its

historic presence in Princeton – Newport noted that Dr. Gallup’s sons

Alec and George Jr. still work there – its corporate headquarters are

now in Washington, D.C. The largest number of the company’s employees

work in its offices in Omaha.

How will opinion polling change in the future? "I have no doubt that

in one way or the other, we will be relying more the Internet,"

Newport says. Gallup uses it now for marketing research, but not for

general opinion polls. The problem is that 30 percent or more of

Americans are not active users of E-mail, so one-third of the

population has no chance of falling into the sample on an E-mail

survey, he explains. Of course, Internet polls are conducted all the

time and organizations announce with great fanfare that they have

tallied tens of thousands of responses, but they are not a random

sample. In fact, such polls mainly attract people who weigh in on a

subject because they have strong feelings about it.

The second problem with the Internet, Newport continues, is that, even

if most Americans were E-mail addicts, there is no master list of all

E-mail addresses that can be used to create a random sample. Internet

polling works beautifully for marketing research, however. If a

company with 1,000 employees hires Gallup to ascertain how motivated

its workers are and provides their E-mail addresses, researchers can

easily survey all of them.

Newport predicts that eventually there will be a national registry of

E-mail addresses. Then there will come a tipping point: Random

sampling will become possible because enough Americans will be regular

users of E-mail. Most pollsters would like to use the Internet for

surveys, he says, because it is quicker and much cheaper.

Newport’s second prediction about the future of opinion polling is

that legislators will finally begin to consult polls between

elections. They will probably not commission surveys themselves. As he

argues in his book, they can simply employ a professional pollster on

their staff to track public opinion on the issues by analyzing data

that is available from companies like Gallup.

When that happens, argues Newport, we all will be much better off than

we are now.

Top Of Page
Who’s Who in Market Research

In greater Princeton more than 30 companies devote themselves

exclusively to market research, and when you count companies that

include market research as one of their offered services, the total

grows to 50 – in all they employ nearly 1,300 people. The list

includes the general marketing firms, as listed in the U.S. 1 Business

Directory, and the companies that do pharmaceutical marketing. Also

listed here are some companies that are related to the market research

field but that do not fit into a standard category.

The listings are based on a survey taken in February and published in

the U.S. 1 Business Directory in April.

American Opinion Research, 279 Wall Street, Research Park, Princeton

08540. Anthony M. Casale, CEO. Founded 1979. Staff size: 22.

609-683-9055; fax, 609-683-8398. Home page: www.imsworld.com

Aurora Marketing Inc., 66 Witherspoon Street, Suite 600, Princeton

08542. Doreen V. Blanc PhD, president. Founded 1986. Staff size: 4.

908-904-1125; fax, 908-359-1108. Home page: www.auroramarketing.net

Braun Research Inc., 271 Wall Street, Princeton 08540. Paul A. Braun,

president. Founded 1995. Staff size: 32. 609-279-1600; fax,

609-279-0381. Home page: www.braunresearch.com

Bruno & Ridgway Research Associates Inc., 3131 Princeton Pike,

Building 2A, Lawrenceville 08648-2207. Joseph M. Ridgway, president.

Founded 1970. Staff size: 47. 609-895-9889; fax, 609-895-6665. Home

page: www.brra.com

David Burnett & Associates (DBA Group), 106 West Franklin Avenue,

Straube Center, Pennington 08534. David Burnett, president. Founded

1992. Staff size: 5. 609-737-2324; fax, 609-737-2453. Home page:

www.dbacompany.com

Data Vision Research Inc., 114 West Franklin Avenue, Building K19-3,

Pennington 08534. Ronald Vangi, president. Founded 1983. Staff size:

3. 609-818-1944; fax, 609-987-9120. Home page: www.dvrinc.com

Design Research, 133 Franklin Corner Road, Box 6086, Lawrenceville

08648. Rick Babick, president. Founded 1998. Staff size: 6.

609-896-1108; fax, 609-896-3016. Www.DesignRes.com

The Gallup Organization, 502 Carnegie Center, Suite 300, Princeton

08540. James K. Clifton, chairman and CEO. Founded 1935. Staff size:

42. 609-924-9600; fax, 609-279-2540. Home page: www.gallup.com

Gallup & Robinson, 24 North Main Street, Pennington 08534-2296. Scott

Purvis, president. Founded 1948. Staff size: 20. 609-730-1550; fax,

609-730-1566. Home page: www.gallup-robinson.com.

Global Quality Research Corporation, 116 Village Boulevard, Suite 200,

Princeton 08540. Miguel Basanez, president. Founded 2000.

609-818-1531; fax, 609-818-1529.

Guthrie & Company, 65 South Main Street, Building A, Pennington 08534.

John Guthrie, president. Founded 1988. Staff size: 2. 609-818-0073;

fax, 609-818-0074.

Harris Interactive (HPOL), 5 Independence Way, Princeton Corporate

Center 4th floor, Box 5305, Princeton 08543-5305. Albert Angrisani,

COO. Founded 1975. Staff size: 150. 609-520-9100; fax, 609-987-8839.

Home page: www.harrisinteractive.com

Hase/Schannen Research Associates Inc., 231 Clarksville Road, Suite 2,

Box 2061, Princeton 08543-2061. Paul F. Hase, president. Founded 1975.

Staff size: 24. 609-799-3939; fax, 609-799-4134. Home page:

www.hsra.com

Mapes and Ross Inc., 176 Wall Street, Princeton 08540-1583. Harold

Ross, president. Founded 1972. Staff size: 20. 609-924-8600; fax,

609-924-9208. Home page: www.mapesandross.com

Marketing Research Services Group, 451 Wall Street, Princeton 08540.

Mel Fink, president. Founded 1991. Staff size: 5. 609-497-1299; fax,

609-497-1538.

Matrix Inc., 3490 Route 1, Princeton 08540. Jacob Katz, president.

Founded 1974. Staff size: 7. 609-452-0099; fax, 609-452-8644.

Www.matrixdataprocessing.com.

Monument Information Resource/Bowker, 713 Executive Drive, Montgomery

Commons, Princeton 08540. Manuel Guzman, president. Founded 1994.

609-430-9494; fax, 609-430-9495.

Multi-Sponsor Surveys, 136 Wall Street, Second Floor, Princeton 08540.

Leonard Wood, president. Founded 1989. Staff size: 21. 609-924-7772;

fax, 609-924-1119. Www.multi-sponsorsurveys.com

NOP World Consumer Sector (UNEWY), 1060 State Road, Box 158, Princeton

08542-0158. Brad Fay, group senior vice president. Founded 1923. Staff

size: 140. 609-683-6100; fax, 609-683-6211. Home page:

www.nopworld.com

Formerly Response Analysis and Roper Starch, part of United Business

Media.

The Olson Research Group Inc., 300 Phillips Boulevard, Suite 100,

Ewing 08618. Charles A. Olson, president. Founded 1995. Staff size:

35. 609-882-9888; fax, 609-882-9826. Www.olsonresearchgroup.com

Opinion Research Corporation (ORCI), 600 College Road, Box 183,

Princeton 08542-0183. John F. Short, CEO. Founded 1938. Staff size:

55. 609-452-5400; fax, 609-419-1892. Www.opinionresearch.com

PRISM, 66 Dempsey Avenue, Princeton 08540. Richard B. Reichart, owner.

Founded 1990. Staff size: 1. 609-924-6492; fax, 609-921-9132. Home

page:

Jack Paxton & Associates, 4 Jefferson Court, Princeton 08540. Jack

Paxton, president. Founded 1989. Staff size: 2. 732-329-2268; fax,

732-329-1372. Home page: www.jackpaxton.com

Princeton Brand Econometrics LLC, 212 Carnegie Center, Suite 110,

Princeton 08540. S. Kent Stephan, CEO. Founded 1991. Staff size: 11.

609-987-1111; fax, 609-987-0588. Home page: www.pbeco.com

Princeton Hightech Group, 7 Ascot Place, North Brunswick 08902. Dinesh

Pandya, president. Founded 1984. Staff size: 4. 732-545-8795.

Princeton Research & Consulting Center Inc., 12 Roszel Road, Suite

C-103, Princeton 08540. Leon B. Kaplan, president. Founded 1979. Staff

size: 4. 609-520-1141; fax, 609-520-1790.

RL Associates, 601 Ewing Street, Suite A-11 Princeton Professional

Park, Princeton 08540. Michael Rappeport, president. Founded 1978.

Staff size: 6. 609-683-9200; fax, 609-683-0855.

Ronin Development Corp., 2 Research Way, Princeton 08540. Harry F.

Bunn, CEO. Founded 1986. Staff size: 11. 609-452-0060; fax,

609-452-0091. Home page: www.ronin.com

Schrader Research & Rating Service, 1260 South River Road, Cranbury

08512. Al Ochsner, CEO. Founded 1952. Staff size: 10. 609-395-1200;

fax, 609-655-8640.

Sports Business Research Network, 24 Magnolia Court, Lawrenceville

08648. Richard A. Lipsey, president. Founded 1996. 609-896-1996; fax,

609-896-1903. Www.sbrnet.com

TNS Intersearch, Taylor Nelson Sofres, 101 College Road East,

Princeton 08540. 609-919-2727; fax, 609-919-1191. Home page:

www.intersearch.tnsofres.com

Turtle Bay Institute Inc., 195 Nassau Street, Princeton 08542.

Kathleen Murphy, president. Founded 1971. Staff size: 5. 609-688-9640;

fax, 609-688-9644.

Zeldis Research, 106 West Franklin Avenue, Straube Center Suite 105,

Pennington 08534. Ken Zeldis & Doris Kaiser, owners. Founded 1991.

Staff size: 6. 609-737-7223; fax, 609-737-9272. Home page:

www.zeldisresearch.com

Marketing

Hugh J. Devine & Associates, 49 Krebs Road, Plainsboro 08536. Hugh

Devine, owner. Founded 1996. 609-799-8170; fax, 609-799-7364.

Sylvester Consulting Group, 20 Nassau Street, Suite 200, Princeton

08540. Derek Sylvester, president. Founded 1996. Staff size: 3.

609-430-8350; fax, 609-430-8351. Home page: www.sylvestergroup.com

WDA Marketing and Management, 116 Village Boulevard, Suite 200,

Princeton 08540. William D’Arienzo, CEO. Founded 1985. Staff size: 6.

609-734-4302; fax, 609-734-4307. Home page: www.wdamarketing.com

Pharmaceutical Marketing

ACNielsen/HCI, 50 Millstone Road, Building 100, Suite 300, East

Windsor 08520. C. Marshall Paul, president. Staff size: 17.

609-630-6450; fax, 609-630-6456. Www.acnielsenhci.com

Division of New York-based VNU, associated with PERQ/HCI.

Consumer Health Sciences, 165 Wall Street, Princeton 08540. Jane A.

Donohue, CEO. Founded 1996. Staff size: 20. 609-924-4455; fax,

609-924-7794. Www.chsinternational.com

PERQ/HCI Research, 50 Millstone Road, Building 100, Suite 300, East

Windsor 08520. George Carens, general manager. Founded 1982. Staff

size: 43. 609-630-6440; fax, 609-630-6456. Www.perq-hci.com

TNS Healthcare, 101 College Road East, Princeton 08540. Craig Parker,

office manager. Founded 1980. Staff size: 50. 609-806-4100; fax,

609-806-4101.

Division of National Family Opinion Research, formerly Migliara

Kaplan.

Biovid Corp., 5 Vaughn Drive, Suite 111, Princeton 08540-6313. Andrew

D. Aprill, president. Founded 1999. Staff size: 8. 609-750-1400; fax,

609-750-1466. Home page: www.biovid.com

Close-Up International, 116 Village Boulevard, Forrestal Village,

Suite 200, Princeton 08540. Guillermo Orlanski, general manager. Staff

size: 1. 609-734-4306; fax, 609-734-7450. Www.closeupinternational.net

Isis Research U.S./Synovate Healthcare, 2 Wall Street, Princeton

08540. Linda Levy, president. Founded 1998. Staff size: 15.

609-688-0474; fax, 609-688-0435. Home page: www.isisresearch.com

NOP World Health (UNEWY), 1060 State Road, Princeton 08540. Barry

Zimmerman, CEO. Founded 1997. Staff size: 40. 609-683-6333; fax,

609-683-6211. Home page: www.nopworld.com

ORYX Group, 114 West Franklin Avenue, Straube Center, Suite 19.2,

Pennington 08534. Anne Miller, owner. Founded 1992. Staff size: 2.

609-818-1001; fax, 609-818-1010.

Social R&D

Mathematica Policy Research Inc., 600 Alexander Park, Suite 100,

Princeton 08540. Charles E. Metcalf, president. Founded 1968. Staff

size: 300. 609-799-3535; fax, 609-799-0005. Home page:

www.mathematica-mpr.com

Princeton Survey Research Associates International LLC, 911 Commons

Way, Montgomery Commons, Princeton 08540. Evans Witt, president.

Founded 1989. Staff size: 15. 609-924-9204; fax, 609-924-7499.

Richard B. Reading Associates, 759 State Road, Princeton 08540.

Richard B. Reading, owner. Founded 1975. Staff size: 6. 609-924-6622;

fax, 609-924-1628.

Market Research Software

P-STAT Inc., 230 Lambertville-Hopewell Road, Hopewell 08525-2809.

Shirrell Buhler, president. Founded 1979. Staff size: 5. 609-466-9200;

fax, 609-466-1688. Home page: www.pstat.com

Princeton Cybernetics Inc., 301 North Harrison Street, Suite 159,

Princeton 08540. Philip Berg. Founded 1998. Staff size: 2.

609-924-7114; fax, 609-921-3561. Home page: www.princetoncyber.com

Datan Inc., 79 Tamarack Circle, Skillman 08558. Michael C. Stentz PhD,

president. Founded 1983. Staff size: 8. 609-921-6098; fax,

609-921-6731. Www.datan.com

Competitive Intelligence

Becker Intelligence, 55 Hamilton South, Plainsboro 08536. Richard

Telofski, president. 609-799-6490.

Brivea LLC, 108 Stanhope Street, Princeton Forrestal Village,

Princeton 08540. Raymond S. Barratt, president. Founded 2002. Staff

size: 5. 609-452-2828; fax, 609-452-8998. Home page: www.brivea.com

InSearch, 14 Cartwright Drive West, Princeton Junction 08550. Melissa

Pankove, president. Founded 1997. Staff size: 1. 609-799-8230; fax,

609-606-3093.

Trade Group

American Association for Public Opinion Research, 271 Wall Street,

Princeton 08540. Paul Braun, president. Founded 1995. 609-279-1600;

fax, 609-279-1318. Home page: www.braunresearch.com Marketing research firm with 200 members.


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