There was a time when before the feature film you got a cartoon or a short subject, or both, instead of commercials and endless previews. Short films are still around and many are very good, serving as a director’s entree into the world of commercial film making, usually through the film festival circuit.
In keeping with the spirit of the holiday season, the Princeton Media Communications Association is devoting its December meeting to drama, animation, comedy, documentary, and experimental film, all on the same program. The event takes place on Wednesday, December 14, at 6:30 p.m. at the Princeton Theological Seminary’s Templeton Hall. For more information, call 609-466-2828, ext. 20. Cost: $15.
The guest speaker is Kevin Williams, a filmmaker and director of the Trenton Film Festival. Kevin’s production department credits include IQ, A Beautiful Mind, Signs, Like Mike, and the television series Hack. He is currently shooting a political documentary.
Williams discusses his experience with short films as a festival director and filmmaker and also tell us about the upcoming third annual Trenton Film Festival.
The award winning short films to be screened and discussed at the meeting will include these and others:
Wow and Flutter. The story of a young teen’s first crush and the music that becomes the voice of his infatuation. Director Gary Lundgren says the film was inspired by his own teenage years.
A Plan. The animated tale of a boy’s daydream of saving his family. Playing on a child’s elaborate fantasy, the story is peppered with beautiful images, both real and imagined, including a snarling dragon that becomes a swaying willow.
Facechasers. An experimental film that was originally conceived as a music video for the Norwegian jazz/electronic group Wibutee, but became more than just a visual interpretation of the music. It’s a tense, fast-paced work with stark, simple, black-and-white images set against the desolation of an empty beach.
The Cost of Hate
Truth is one of those enigmas most everyone recognizes, but only a few can think up for themselves. In his recent visit to Rutgers University, the Dalai Lama noted the seemingly obvious truth that disarmament was an admirable goal. It lies within our grasp, but, he said, there can be no external disarming without internal disarmament.
Hate is the most expensive emotion in the human arsenal. War and destructive terrorism are merely organized hate, even though they may be launched by greed or revenge. We cannot call ourselves free or secure while it rages among us. To help us take those first necessary steps toward internal disarmament, Raritan Valley Community College presents "Homeland Security: Protecting Our Human Rights Against Hate Crimes, Terrorism, and Racism," on Thursday, December 15, at 8:30 a.m. at the college’s North Branch Campus. Cost: $12. Call 908-526-1200, ext. 8284.
The half-day forum covers a variety of topics, including "Hate and the Internet" and "Hate Speech and Hate Crimes." Panelists include Nabil Marshood, professor of sociology at Hudson County Community College; Dominick Stampone, instructor in criminal justice, Raritan Valley Community College; Mark Weitzman, director of the New York Tolerance Center; and Randall West, instructor in education at Fairleigh Dickinson University.
Marshood is a Palestinian who hails from Galilee — a town that has bred philosophical rebels since the days of King Herod. He studied sociology at Hebrew University of Jerusalem, earning a B.A. in l972, followed by a masters. Marshood then emigrated to the United States where he took his Ph.D. at Columbia University, and began teaching at Hudson County Community College. This January he begins his Fulbright Scholarship work, studying the plight of Palestine refugees in Jordan.
America continues to be a magnet for immigrants from around the globe and, in fact, is on the verge of flipping its majority population’s race, with Caucasions taking on minority status for the first time. Acknowledging roiling resentments on all sides, many scholars at this forum may preach the soothing doctrine of tolerance and acceptance. But do not look to Marshood to follow this platitudinous party line.
Insidious tolerance? "Tolerance is not only the wrong sociologic goal," insists Marshood. "it can often be a stumbling block to the right one." For Marshood, tolerance indicates something one expresses toward insects or bothersome immigrants. They are pests to be endured. Such forbearance indicates a satisfying, if somewhat smug, moral stance. The very term is condescending and revolves only around the dominant cultures in a given area.
The more productive goal is integration. This, for Marshood, means turning not a blind eye, but rather an appreciative view toward cultural differences. Integration requires active inclusion by both the dominant culture and the new cultures. It is an effort most folks do not want to make, so, instead, they end up sitting in the comfortable, illusory chair of tolerance. Marshood points out that the concept of tolerance came into use in the United States only about 20 years ago. Interestingly, this coincides with the latest surge of new cultures and ethnic groups arriving on our shores.
Force of change. Immigrants are natural agitators for change. They seek the legendary justice, freedom, and equality that lured them to this land in the first place. Those cultures already on top, just as naturally, want as little rocking of their happy boat as possible. No one is immoral for these feelings, Marshood explains, but a change in demographics has already begun. Currently 25 percent of New Jersey’s population is foreign born. Nationally, the percentage of foreign born increased 43 percent in the last decade.
In the face of these numbers, change is not a choice. Stonewalling the integration of one-quarter of a society’s members is a recipe for oppression, cultural disparity, and violent hate crimes. The goal of ethnic and cultural inclusion comes with the price tag of individual and societal change. But in the end, it will foster that security we seek, as well as broadening our own experiences.
Migrating moves. Typically, newcomers to American shores cluster ethnically, be it in Chinatown, Little Italy, or Brighton Beach — which has seen an influx of Russian immigrants. These neighborhoods provide a very natural and enticing security, particularly linguistically. It is a pattern followed by virtually every newly entering group.
"But while they feed the new immigrant with information, familiar contacts, and even a first job, they generally cannot sustain his needs," says Marshood. "As the immigrant’s ambitions and needs grow, he ventures from the ethnic neighborhood into broader, more mixed venues — he mainstreams into the dominant culture." At that point, the established folks can either actively exclude, tolerate, or include this newcomer. If they choose either of the first two, a continual resentment is bred.
Grassroots war. America may well point with pride to the great advances made at integrating whites and blacks within the past few decades. But Marsood wryly suggests that both groups have shared common soil for over 300 years. The culture shock of tsunamis of new peoples demands a greater accommodation. And Marshood says that American society as a whole has not met this challenge.
As a final assignment to his students, Marshood had them view several hours of television news concerning the latest disturbances in Paris. He then asked them what these shows had taught them about the intercultural aspects and the history involved — about the issues and views of both sides. The students responded in total agreement: the media had informed them on none of these points. Amid all the endless footage of burning buildings and autos, no effort at enlightening was made by the television coverage.
It is possible to condemn the rioters while, at the same time, deploring the lack of real assimilation that led them to riot. That respectful assimilation — bringing with it benefits to natives and newcomers alike — should be the goal. In our multicultural society, there is no choice.
Crafting Employment Applications
It’s obvious what should be included in a job application form – right? Wrong! That’s what many employers think, and as a result they use outdated forms that have been lying around in the file cabinets for years. Or more enterprising companies might purchase a job application from a forms vendor. But few consider what questions are or are not appropriate to ask a prospective job candidate.
Another omnipresent form is the I-9, now required for all employees. "Every employee, immigrant or not, has to be verified as being eligible for employment," says Barbara Cordasco, a staff member for the Employers Association of New Jersey (EANJ), "and an I-9 is the way to do it." Although what goes in the I-9 is not up for question, it being a standard government form, employers are not always sure about the correct procedures for handling it.
Cordasco, along with Robin Ross, also on the EANJ staff, lead a roundtable discussion on right way to craft employment applications and I-9s at this month’s EANJ Breakfast Briefing on Thursday, December 15, at 8 a.m. at the Peapack-Gladstone Bank in Gladstone. For more information or to register, contact Barbara Cordasco at 973-758-6800 or E-mail her at email@example.com. This event is an open forum for both members and non-members, HR professionals, and any individual who is responsible for handling employee relations issues.
Because New Jersey has one of most diverse populations in the nation, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has seen a rise indiscrimination complaints, as has the EANJ, with more inquiries regarding national origin, citizenship, and discrimination. "Our role as an employer association is to help our members understand their obligations through the myriad of employment laws," says Cordasco. The organization has a number of programs that educate employers on how to comply with the laws – and avoid liability.
Cordasco and Ross offer the following advice about employment applications:
Ask only questions about job qualifications. "It is important for employers to understand why some questions are not appropriate to ask even though they are not illegal per se," says Cordasco. Questions on a job application should relate to a person’s qualifications for the job, and that’s it. "People are very surprised to find out that certain things they have been asking have no reason except that they’ve always been done that way," she observes. Here is a list of oft-asked, but inappropriate questions:
What is your Social Security number? In these days of identity theft, when people want to ensure the privacy of their Social Security numbers, many applications still ask for it.
Were you in the armed forces and, if yes, what was your rank? Applications often question job candidates about military service – something not relevant to most jobs.
What is your driver’s license number? This question only makes sense if driving is part of the job being applied for, for example, a truck driver or messenger position.
Are you a U.S. citizen? During the application process, what the employer really needs to know the answer to is: "Are you legally authorized to work in this country?"
Will you be able to get back and forth from work? Again, this is not relevant to job qualifications.
Watch out especially for questions that may suggest discrimination. Ross says, for example, that many employers ask about disabilities. "That’s a no no," she says. "The information you want to gain during the application process and interview is – can this person do the job?"
Questions about age, race, religion, and the like, can only lead to a greater liability. People not hired could claim they were passed over, not because they lacked the qualifications for the job, but because of their answers to these questions.
Make sure wording is clear and includes any necessary disclaimers. If employers want to ask about a conviction record, for example, they should not ask the relatively vague question: "Have you ever been convicted?" A better way is to ask, "Have you ever been convicted of a crime?" But then they must add a disclaimer that answering yes may not necessarily prohibit employment.
Inform candidates of any background checks. If an employer uses an agency to do a background check on a potential employee, the Fair Credit and Reporting Act requires a release from the employee. If the employer decides not to hire based on the background check, he must provide a copy to the applicant, offering an opportunity to make corrections. If employers go to the state police on their own to do background checks, they do not need to comply with the act.
In I-9 checks, do not ask for specific documents. For the I-9, the company has an obligation to see certain documents – one document from List A, or one from List B, and one from List C. The potential employee decides which specific documents to provide.
Employers can’t even ask to see a driver’s license. All they are allowed to say is: "You have three days after hire to show me either one document from List A, or one from List B, and one from List C."
Ross adds that even if the person voluntarily writes down an alien identification number or a Social Security number, the employer cannot ask to see those documents – assuming that the person has provided other appropriate documents as listed on the I-9.
Don’t keep I-9s longer than necessary. Ross explains that the language in the law can be confusing in that it requires employers to keep I-9s for three years from the date of hire or one year from date of termination. She elaborates on what this wording really means: Employers must have an I-9 for every current employee. Because of the law’s language, many employers think incorrectly that the I-9 can be destroyed after the employee has been with the company for three years.
Employers can and should destroy the I-9 a year after an employee terminates. The reason for not retaining the I-9 for a minute longer than necessary is that the employer is responsible for any paperwork violations on the I-9. For example, if an employee did not properly fill out a section, the company may get fined for hiring an illegal alien – even if the problematic form was incorrectly retained and could legally have been destroyed.
"It is the responsibility of the company to make sure the employee filled it out correctly," says Ross.
If employers find that they don’t have an I-9 for an employee, it’s a good idea to have the employee complete one immediately. Due to an amendment to the Immigration Reform and Control Act, a good faith effort to comply and make corrections will be taken into consideration in terms of assessment of fines.
Cordasco has been with EANJ for 17 years. She has written hundreds of Affirmative Action programs for government contractors and financial
institutions. She also does in-house diversity training for EANJ members and has been involved in EANJ membership promotion and retention. She is a member of a New Jersey Chapter of the Society of Human Resource Management and the American Association for Affirmative Action.
Ross has been practicing labor and employment law for nearly two decades and has been with EANJ for nearly five years. She has worked for unions and the City of Boston, and as a corporate counsel. She has had considerable experience in the legal aspects of discrimination. Ross earned her B.A. from Clark University and her J.D. from Suffolk University Law School.
It’s not quite time for spring cleaning, but companies may want to dump those old employment applications and come to EANJ’s breakfast briefing to get a sample of an acceptable job application form. The old forms may simply be inappropriate, but they may also be discriminatory and therefore illegal.
Arts and Business at Mercer Chamber
The Mercer Regional Chamber of Commerce has formed the Arts and Business Council of Greater Trenton. The council was recently incorporated and will be launched at the chamber’s holiday meeting onThursday, December 15, at 11:30 a.m. at the Westin Forrestal. Cost: $50. Call 609-393-4143.
The work of local artists will be on display as will exhibits from members of the area’s arts and cultural community.
"The Arts and Business Council will endeavor to connect the greater Trenton arts community with the regional business community in order to foster strong relationships, develop resources for the arts, and advance the region as an arts destination," chamber president Michele Siekerka said in a prepared statement.
Honing Job Descriptions
How many people have started a new job, only to find out that the job’s requirements are very different than what they thought they were when they interviewed? And how many employers have been disappointed by a new employee’s inability to perform several job functions – even though they never asked about these areas during the job interview? And how many others have misclassified employees as exempt or nonexempt?
"All of these problems can come up because of a poorly written job description," says Jesse Behrens, program supervisor and trainer for the New Jersey Department of Labor. He adds that often "mom and pop shops" won’t have job descriptions at all, and as organizations grow, descriptions are often incomplete or outdated.
Behrens has been giving seminars for 15 years to employers, human resources administrators, managers, and supervisors in both small and large businesses on how to perform a job analysis and write a job description. He gives a day-long seminar on "Analyzing Jobs and Writing Job Descriptions," on Tuesday, December 20, at 9 a.m. at Camden Community College’s Blackwood Campus. Cost: $10. For more information, call seminar coordinator Patrick Phillips at 609-984-3529.
Clear and comprehensive job descriptions are critical in a variety of human resources applications:
Recruitment and selection of employees. An employer needs a good knowledge of all of the duties and responsibilities a job entails if he wants to hire an individual who is good fit and whose skills match the job’s requirements.
Performance appraisal. An employer needs to develop standards against which performance will be measured, focusing on job responsibilities and tasks. It’s hard to evaluate an employee if his duties are vague or unspecified.
Development of training programs. How you can round up the employees who need to attend a sales seminar if you don’t know whose duties include sales? Who are the best people to go to a disaster preparedness training session? Without detailed job descriptions it can be difficult to tell.
Development of safety and health programs. Part of the job description should include both the physical demands and working conditions, including hazards, as well as protective devices to minimize any hazards.
Legal compliance. The Fair Labor Standards Act requires employers to know which positions are and are not exempt from overtime. The consequences of misclassifications can be complaints that result in payment of fines and back pay. The New Jersey Law Against Discrimination not only mandates against discrimination, but requires employers to take positive action to accommodate disabilities.
Behrens notes that companies must know how a job is normally performed so that they can think of innovative ways to accommodate an individual with disabilities.
"Job descriptions are also important to limit a company’s liability in case it is sued or someone files a discrimination complaint," he says. A company must demonstrate in court that it has made employment decisions based on job-related factors. A job description may help establish that the complainant had a weakness in an essential job task. Along with the performance appraisal, a job description is the document most frequently requested by the courts.
Wage and salary administration. Employers must ensure that they are paying the prevailing wage for what a job actually entails. Job restructuring, creating career ladders, and reorganizing the work force require job and task analyses.
Labor negotiations. In union workplaces job descriptions may be part of the negotiations. For example, the employer may want to include a vague phrase like "performs other duties as required," whereas the union will demand that job duties be more tightly defined.
A good job description, according to Behrens, includes the following:
Identifying information, including job title, code numbers, department, and whether the job is exempt or nonexempt from overtime.
Job summary. A brief sentence or two giving the overall concept of job. For example, for an administrative assistant or a secretary, this might be "Provides administrative and clerical support to the director of the research department."
Task descriptions, which break the job into tasks in an organized manner and describe each task. Behrens recommends a brief task summary (it can be just a phrase) as a lead in, followed by task elements.
Here is an example: "Supervisory clerk typist and file clerk: assigns and checks work of subordinate clerical staff; monitors their performance and provides periodic feedback; prepares annual performance appraisal assessments, conducts appraisal interviews, and submits completed appraisals to director; resolves problems and coordinates work activities." For each task, include a percentage estimate of what part of the total job it constitutes.
Job requirements, including skills, knowledge, and abilities.
Judgments, decisions, and consequences, which indicate what types of judgments and decisions this job requires. What are the consequences if the person makes a mistake, fails to complete a task, or does it at the wrong time? This section, says Behrens, "gives an added dimension about the level of responsibility of the job."
He cites an example from the training materials for the seminar: "Makes independent judgments in the absence of the director; decides on appropriate format for correspondence, reports, and memos; determines effective ways in which to compose correspondence and locate information on scientific topics; evaluates work of subordinate clerical staff; decides on best methods of travel and arranges for conferences.
"Consequences of making errors in or failing to perform these functions include loss of prestige to the department and financial and organizational hardship caused by failure to meet time-sensitive goals such as conference arrangements and deadlines on scientific papers."
Work devices, including machines, tools, equipment, and work aids necessary for the performance of the job.
Education/training and experience necessary to perform the task the job requires.
Other requirements. These might include licenses, certifications, or requiring workers to have their own tools.
Job context, which describes the position of the job within the organization, including its supervisor; its supervisees, in terms of numbers and job titles; lines of promotion and transfer; and other jobs in the organization that the employee must work closely with.
Physical demands and environmental conditions. Physical demands are often presented as a grid with a checklist that includes activities like standing, walking, sitting, lifting, carrying, pushing, pulling, climbing, balancing, crouching, hearing, and vision.
Environmental conditions working outdoors under difficult weather conditions; a wet, humid environment; working near dust, fumes, or cold or hot items (like refrigerator rooms or ovens). Hazards such as burns, electric shocks, caustic substances, or something that could fall on the worker. Estimate of noise levels, using a scale of one to five with benchmarks based on number of decibels.
To write a good job description requires a careful analysis of the job. Methods of analysis must be selected based both on effectiveness and cost. Behrens describes the different possibilities:
Observation and interview, either of a worker or a job expert. This method, used alone, may not be cost effective, but may work well with other strategies.
Group interview. Talking at the same time to several individuals performing the same or similar jobs can save time.
Technical committee. Interview job experts, supervisors, engineers, or other experts in the organization.
Questionnaires. A job analysis questionnaire is filled out by the person whose job is being studied; it can include both structured items (checklists) or requests for task descriptions.
Task checklist. Employees are given a list of all possible tasks performed in a department. They are asked to write in any wording changes they think are necessary and to estimate percentage of time spent on each task.
Self-prepared position description. Ask employees to write down what they do, but this requires employees who can both conceptualize and write well.
Diaries or log books. Although this is not necessarily recommended, some companies ask employees to keep a log of what they are doing, say every Tuesday morning and Thursday afternoon, for a month.
Behrens suggests using some combination of methods in cost-effective ways. For example, an employer might observe a person, draft a description, and then ask the person to review and verify and make any changes necessary. Or the employer might study one person in detail and create a checklist or questionnaire that is administered to other workers in similar positions for verification.
When developing an approach to job analysis, Behrens suggests keeping the following in mind:
Consider how you will get information about decisions and judgments.
Use open-ended questions, allowing the employee to answer fully.
Be aware that some individuals either inflate or underplay what they do.
Sometimes employees will present their own adaptations of a job rather than describing how it should be done, or they may be doing it in an unorthodox manner.
Be observant. Ask, for example, who uses a repair manual you notice on a bookshelf. If the employee uses it, it may mean an additional task.
Behrens received a bachelor’s degree in psychology and sociology from Hunter College in the Bronx (now Lehman College) in 1963. After graduation he joined the New York Department of Labor as an employment interviewer. Moving through the ranks, he worked as an employment counselor, supervisor of a placement unit, and, in 1969, as an occupational analyst. In this last position, he was also doing work for the United States Department of Labor as a member of a research field center, mostly on a dictionary of occupational titles, job restructuring methodology, and career publications, until 1982.
In 1984 moved to the New Jersey Department of Labor, which wanted to start an Industrial Services program. Its purpose was to provide employers with training and human resources assistance.
Behrens started the department with three analysts in addition to himself. The renamed Employer Human Resources Support Services Unit has expanded to include Behrens, four human resource analysts/trainers, a seminar coordinator, and a secretary. The unit does 235 seminars a year, both at colleges and at businesses. The 75-80 scheduled seminars are mostly at colleges, but the unit will do on-site seminars for businesses that can promise at least 12 attendees.
Clearly job descriptions form the bedrock of the human resources functions. Without an understanding of the individual job tasks are, it’s not just the managers who are at a loss when it comes to performance appraisal time, but also the higher level planners, who will lack a vital understanding of the business’s employment needs.
Stem Cell Banks
Stem cells just might be the greatest healing tool since the invention of the polio vaccine – if they can be manipulated properly. And while there is an ongoing debate about the source of harvest, New Jersey Governor Richard Codey has earmarked a $350,000 grant for the production and banking of stem cells to be used in research. The grant recipient, Camden-based Coriell Institute for Medical Research, is now providing enough stem cells for the needs of researchers at large New Jersey pharmaceutical firms. Could it produce even more if they partnered with the private sector? It is casting around.
To help researchers make entrepreneurial connections, the New Jersey Angels Network is presenting "Nano Tools for Advanced Materials Manufacturing," on Wednesday, December 21, at 8 a.m. at the Hyatt Regency in New Brunswick. Cost: $60. Visit www.njangels.net or call 732-873-1955. The meeting will focus on stem cells and other regenerative medicines, with several researchers invited to present, including the director of Coriell’s stem cell program, Rick Cohen.
While he insists he was headed that way anyway, Cohen admits to being nudged somewhat toward the stem cell study by his wife. A native of Montreal, Cohen attended McGill University where he earned a B.S. in biochemistry and a doctorate in pharmacology.
While finishing his thesis, he joined Bronx-based Albert Einstein College of Medicine as a visiting scientist. From there he spent five years at the National Institute of Health researching neurogenetics while his wife was working on stem cells. Already steeped in cellular study and intrigued by his wife’s work, Cohen moved to Coriell, where he has worked for the last five years. Currently director of Coriell’s stem cell repository and its Richard B. Satell Laboratory for Breast Cancer Research, Cohen likes the small lab’s aggressively inventive atmosphere. "It’s the kind of place where if anyone has a good idea, people will listen," he says.
"Stem cell" is the term used to define early stage cells that are initially formed from, but have not as yet morphed into, specific tissue – for example, bone, muscle, organs, or blood. So far medical researchers have had some teasingly hopeful successes at manipulating such cells to change and grow into the healthy, specific tissue. The next step – controlled implantation to repair damaged cells – is a process that offers great promise in curing a number of diseases, but which is still in its infancy.
The debate around cell stem use in medical research involves human embryonic cells, but Coriell receives its basic stem cell material from adult sources: whole donated blood, umbilical cords, and placentas. Most people have no problem with harvesting from these sources.
"Governor Codey, with his vision, really crystallized the stem cell repository and research for this state," says Cohen. "It has allowed us – and scientists everywhere – to make great medical strides."
In the bank. Coriell offers two basic stem cell products to researchers. The first is undifferentiated stem cells from donated blood. "Our lab receives a bag of donated blood which has been tested for transfusion and meet all the qualitative requirements, except quantity," explains Cohen. Donors have gone through the tedious consent form, assuring collectors that they have had no recent tattoos, take no continuing medication, and have not visited any foreign lands lately.
From these small amounts of sterile, packaged blood, Cohen’s lab extracts what it calls the buffy – the white cells, easily separated because they are light and can be whipped to the surface in a light froth. The heavier red cells sink to the bottom. Each of these is then introduced to a culture of stem cells and safely stored in a frozen state.
The second product is cells from donated human placentas. The placenta is the large organ that surrounds the yet-to-be-born child. It is filled with an abundance of mesenzhymal cells. Properly encouraged, these can be directed to grow into liver, bone, cartilage, muscle, and fat. Most researchers want a certain part dissected, while some want the whole placental organ. In each case, Coriell researchers provide the exact culture of stems for the change.
One of the great benefits of having a laboratory in the Garden State is the ethnic diversity of potential donors. The type and elements of the blood must match, explains Cohen. "It does us very little good if all 24 of our placentas donated for the year come from mothers of male Caucasians." New Jersey has provided the full variety of blood types and ethnic strains researchers require.
From vault to lab. Within the past year Coriell has extracted and stored 100 buffy white cell cultures, 30 stem cell units from buffy, and 100 vials of each of the 24 placentas collected, for a total of 2,400. There are also some red cell cultures for certain north Jersey labs. These are all stored frozen in a vault, which liquid nitrogen cools to minus 170 degrees Celsius.
The safety and purity checks throughout the entire process need to be fanatical and exhaustive. Samples are tested for infectious diseases initially, then for bacteria all along the way. Citogenetic testing makes sure of the proper chromosome compliment. Thousands of vials and cultures, taken during the lab’s history, and only two have ever been found corrupted and had to be thrown out, says Cohen.
Researchers requesting stem cell cultures pay only a shipping fee. Thanks to the $350,000 grant, the product is free.
Going private? Lewis Coriell began his medical institute 53 years ago with the aim of helping get polio vaccines out the public. Like Jonas Salk, Coriell believed that science was to be shared for the good of humankind. As a result many patents were bypassed by the institute.