Corrections or additions?

This article by Elaine Strauss was prepared for the May 15, 2002

edition of U.S. 1 Newspaper. All rights reserved.

Organ Sound to Celebrate

Standard equipment for church organists is a rear-view

mirror that enables them to see people proceeding up the aisle, or

to judge whether the congregation has dispersed. At New Brunswick’s

Christ Church it might be to the point to equip worshipers, as well

as organist, with a rear view mirror. Facing the altar, the


cannot see their shapely new tracker organ nestled in the choir loft

above them. Its curves reflect the architecture of the building. Its

blue and golden accents against silver pipes unite delicacy and power.

This organ brings pleasure to both ears and eyes.

In a concert officially dedicating the instrument on Sunday, May 19,

at 7:30 p.m., the church, which has had an organ since 1788,


its new instrument and also shows the versatility of its musical


George Frederic Handel’s Organ Concerto Op. 4, No. 5 opens the


The Christ Church Choir, with orchestral accompaniment, sings his

"O Praise the Lord With One Consent," and "Let Thy Hand

Be Strengthened." Antonius Bittmann, Rutgers University Organist

and professor of music solos in the Handel concerto and also plays

Johann Sebastian Bach’s "Piece d’Orgue." Mark Trautman, music

director at Christ Church, conducts the choir and orchestra.

The Christ Church organ is cousin to the new organ, designed by Paul

Fritts and Company, installed at Princeton Theological Seminary last

winter (U.S. 1, December 19, 2001). The Christ Church instrument is

the work of Richards, Fowkes & Co. As Fritts-Richards Organ Builders,

Ralph Richards of Richards, Fowkes and Paul Fritts produced five


together between 1979 and 1986. Like all quality organs, the


at the New Brunswick church and the Princeton seminary were designed

and meticulously crafted for their particular architectural spaces

and uses.

"The Seminary organ and the Christ Church organ are very similar

in many respects," says Christ Church’s Mark Trautman. "But

the Fritts organ is very plain — it was designed for a


chapel, which is geared more to preaching — and ours was built

for a very liturgically-oriented Episcopal church, which has a more

elaborate service. One of the advantages for us of having the organ

in back is that it can be what it wants to be. If it was right in

front it might overpower the worship service." The Seminary organ

is located front and center in its space not far from the pulpit.

Both organs produce a clear, uncluttered sound.

During my visit to an empty Christ Church, Trautman shows me the 1773

organ loft and plays for me. A crisp, clean sound with muscle fills

the space as I hear Bach’s relatively weighty "Heut triumphieret

Gottes Sohn." When he plays Bach’s organ transcription of his

"Wachet auf," the instrument behaves like a chamber ensemble,

mimicking the sounds of solo flute, bass and horn.

Trautman pauses briefly as he considers how the new organ handles.

"There are so many superlatives. Let me pick one," he says.

"When one plays this organ, there is an immediate connection with

the lifeblood of the instrument. You feel at one with it, as you do

with a really fine piano. It’s very much like when a violinist plays

a fine Stradivarius. There’s a direct relationship with the


It feels intimate."

Indeed, there is an integral connection between player and sound


the Christ Church instrument uses a tracker, or mechanical action,

as opposed to an electro-pneumatic action. Depressing a key on a


organ directly releases a valve that permits the instrument to sound.

Depressing a key on an electro-pneumatic organ sets in motion


connections that open the sounding pipes, which may be at a


distance from the player; when keyboard and pipes are close the


speaks immediately; when they are at a distance there is a delay.

The organ world divides sharply between tracker advocates and


enthusiasts. Trautman, like Joan Lippincott, his teacher and devotee

of the new organ at Princeton Theological Seminary, is firmly in the

tracker contingent. David Messineo, Princeton University organist

(U.S. 1, February 20, 2002), is an advocate of electro-pneumatic


Electro-pneumatic organs came into vogue in 19th-century France as

romantic composers wrote resounding pieces for large spaces such as

Notre Dame Cathedral and Sainte Clothilde Church in Paris. Their


for playing orchestral transcriptions contributed to their appeal

into the 1920s.

Organ pieces smaller than those of the French romantics fare better

in small architectural spaces where tracker mechanisms can deliver

a cleaner sound.

Saddled with a declining electro-pneumatic organ, the Christ Church

organ committee weighed both sorts of action as it tussled with the

instrument’s problems in the middle 1990s. "When I came arrived

in 1994," Trautman says, "the organ was on its last legs.

It was poorly rebuilt and poorly taken care of. There had been four

major rebuilds between the late 1940s and the mid-1980s. Anything

with extensive electronic technology is bound to go bad quickly —

think of a computer. Fixing that organ was like attacking a dandelion.

If you pick off some of the petals, it doesn’t solve the problem and

you have to try something else. It was clear that we would have to

do something radical. On the advice of a number of experts the


decided that rebuilding the organ would be a poor use of funds."

Yet paying for a new instrument likely to cost $400,000

was problematical. Christ Church Rector Joan Fleming took the first

major step in funding in 1995 by calling on an old friend of her


Peter T. Joseph, patron of the arts and head of Rosecliff Inc., a

merchant banking company. Joseph promised a gift of $100,000, most

of it on a matching-fund basis.

After being damaged by lightning, the old organ sounded its last notes

in November, 1996, and the church decided to rely on a piano as its

keyboard instrument until a new organ was installed.

Still squeezed for funding in 1997, the church commissioned Richards,

Fowkes & Co. to build less than its dream instrument. The new organ

would have only 14 stops. However, more stops could be added if funds

became available.

In 1998 Helen Torrey, widow of Henry Torrey, Rutgers Emeritus


of Physics, whose research was central to the development of magnetic

resonance imaging (MRI), decided to honor her late husband with a

gift of $100,000. Her gift made possible the enlargement to 24 stops.

Transported in a 53-foot truck, the new organ, the 12th to be built

by Richards, Fowkes and Company, arrived in New Brunswick from


on August 19, 2001. The following morning the organ builders and a

crew of two dozen parishioners and friends unloaded it. An audience

heard it for the first time during services on September 2. By


16 almost all of its stops were working and it accompanied the choir

in the Advent Service of Lessons and Carols.

From September, 2001, to January, 2002, Bruce Fowkes lived in


Highland Park home and directed the installation of the organ.


Ralph Richards stayed primarily in Tennessee managing the company.

The final adaptation of the organ to its space required meticulous

work and refined decisions. Pipes had to be voiced, that is, made

to speak evenly and to blend. The correct color of blue as an accent

color had to be devised so that it would harmonize with the paler

blue of the barrel-vaulted ceiling. In addition, a precise shade of

off-white for the organ would have to be arrived at. If the organ

was painted the same color as the walls it would disappear visually.

It needed an off-white that would set it apart from its background,

yet give the illusion that instrument and walls were the same color.

"Bruce worked six days a week. He came home, ate supper, and went

to bed," Trautman says. He went home 7 to 10 days a month. It

was hard on his family. That’s the life of an organ builder.

"He went to services at Christ Church and the parish got to know

him. It was like birthing a baby. He was there, nursing the organ

along, making it speak. He encouraged feedback. The parish felt that

he was a part of them," Trautman says.

Trautman says that the church’s five organless years were not wasted

musically. "The choir became a good a cappella choir," he

notes. "And not having an organ made me look at church music


Now 42, Trautman was born in Maryland, about an hour

south of Washington, D.C. With a mother who sang in a choir and a

father who played in his high school band, his immediate family was

not notably musical. However, his great grandmother and her sister

graduated from the New England Conservatory of music at a time when

education was a rarity for women. His 19-year-old son David, a


now studies music at Shenandoah University in Winchester, Virginia.

Having heard organ in church when he was young, Trautman was


by its energy and power. Since there were few organs in rural


he taught himself to play organ when he was in high school. "I

had a good background in piano," he says, "so it was just

a matter of learning the pedals." At the same time he held church

jobs. "I’ve always had a church job since I was 16," he says.

"I directed choirs for little tiny churches."

Trautman started at St. Mary’s College in Maryland as a piano major.

In his early 20s, he worked with handicapped children ages 3 to 21.

"I was married at 19 and I needed a job," he says. He is now

divorced. His partner is Ben Sifuentes, a member of the Rutgers



In his late 20s, Trautman returned to school and earned a bachelor’s

degree in organ performance from Towson University in 1993. Two years

later he earned a master’s degree from Westminster Choir College of

Rider University in Princeton.

From 1996 to 2001 he served as organist at Temple Anshe Emeth in New

Brunswick. "I loved playing for the temple," he says. "I

formed a relationship with Cantor Anna Ott. She’s a wonderful singer

and musician. Our choirs have sung together. But with the new organ

coming, Christ Church was becoming more of a full-time job."

That new organ is likely to last far longer than anyone now at the

church. Built to the exacting standards that have given European


their longevity, the Richards Fowkes organ at Christ Church, properly

maintained, should still be going strong in the 23rd century.

— Elaine Strauss

Organ Dedication Concert, Christ Church, 5 Paterson

Street, New Brunswick, 732-545-6262. Handel’s Organ Concerto Op.4,

No. 5, Antonius Bittmann, organist, and the choir and orchestra


by Mark Trautman. $10 & $15. Sunday, May 19, 7:30 p.m.

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