Corrections or additions?
These articles by Bart Jackson and Kathleen McGinn Spring were prepared for the April 23, 2003 edition of U.S. 1 Newspaper. All rights reserved.
Know Your Computer
I will never understand women," a typical Princeton
sophomore might exclaim. To which his roommate could respond, "Well,
do you understand computers?" The sophomore most probably would
admit that he does not. "So," replies his roommate, "what’s
the problem?" Pervasive, unfathomable, and delightful in our lives,
that glowing box that now perches on desks everywhere, draining desk
space and patience, is only the ostensible tip of a vast iceberg that
affects all of us every day.
In the face of this expanding cyber intrusion, do we just treat computers
like the equally pervasive car: a useful enigma whose workings are
understood only by trained auto mechanics? Or might we approach computers
as we do the ladies in our lives, with whom a little understanding
rewards us with untold benefits? Those opting for the latter are no
doubt the audience for "What Should an Educated Person Know About
Computers?" on Thursday, April 24, at 8 p.m. at Sarnoff. Free
by reservation. Call 908-582-7086 or visit www.PrincetonACM.org.
Presented as a joint meeting of the Princeton Chapters of the Association
for Computing Machinery (ACM) and the Institute of Electric & Electronic
Engineers’ (IEEE) Computer Society, the event features
a computer science professor at Princeton University. The lecture
is a summary version of Kernighan’s Princeton undergraduate course
"Computers in Our World," which is specifically designed for
humanities and social science students as well as for engineering
Because of computers carburetors run more efficiently, scuba divers
get more bottom time, tumors are diagnosed early, phones can be answered
anywhere — and monitored — and business is globalizing at
"The computer/digital world, in fact all technology, is something
we ignore at our peril," states Kernighan. Yet, he continues,
few people who use technology know much about it.
Kernighan, whose father was a chemical engineer, was born in Toronto.
He obtained his bachelor’s degree from the University of Toronto in
engineering physics and his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Princeton
University. He then spent three decades at the Bell Labs Computer
Science Research Center. Now teaching at Princeton, he is the author
of several books, including The C Programming Language and The UNIX
Kernighan says we should view the age of digital technology with "an
informed skepticism, rather than seeing it as evil incarnate or as
an all-solving panacea." To gain this knowledge, we must learn
how computer hardware works; how it is built; its logical structure,
which has not changed much with time, and the physical structure,
which has changed enormously.
more than that little pocket calculator you hold in your hand,"
says Kernighan. "They are able to do a whole lot of simple addition
very rapidly." The problem is that most people misperceive how
many calculations computers can do, and how fast. The concept of billions
of individual calculations, completed within seconds, remains a tough
one to grasp and is usually either underestimated or overestimated.
Add enough of these calculations together and you can figure out the
course of a light beam sent right to a Martian satellite. More arithmetic
and you can figure in enough of the probable variables to keep the
video picture beamed right back to Houston. Redirect the math and
you can present an image of a car and calculate each line’s perspective
as it rotates in front of you. You can even set certain sound patterns
to trigger responses and create a computerized psychiatric program
— artificial intelligence that smacks of the real thing.
be reduced to simple arithmetic does not compute," states Kernighan
flatly. Computers are the ultimate quantifier with no eye — electric
or otherwise — for judgment or quality.
"They will never teach you truth, beauty, or the meaning of life,"
Kernighan points out. A computer can not determine which object is
bigger. It can tell you that this truck weighs 12 tons and the other
truck weighs 14, but you, or the programmer, must take the data and
judge which is heavier.
While computers can not yet run for office, they have enormous power.
When the calculations show that you need the larger truck to haul
the load, the crew in shipping is happy for this judgment call. But
when a human decides to program a computer to monitor your phone calls,
you may be less pleased.
Report," producer Steven Spielberg gathered an assortment of expert
futurists to help him depict life in 2054. One of the very few things
they unanimously agreed upon was that privacy, as we know it, would
be gone. Of this prophecy, Kernighan says "while common sense
says yes, hope says no." His hope is that while computers certainly
are able to accumulate vast aggregates of information about us, the
ability to halt the dissemination of this data throughout the government
and into the private sector will remain very much with us.
But Kernighan acknowledges that the total deletion of data, for instance
files or E-mail, "is becoming increasingly hard." By use of
a cookie, a file fragment left behind on websites surfers visit, any
good hacker can recover the entire file, and, if not the entire E-mail,
at least a correspondence log.
Such information, when purchased by businesses, gives rise to unwelcome
target advertising. If given to the FBI or to an employer, it could
reveal information most people would prefer to keep private. Armed
with the knowledge of how such invasions occur, individuals and businesses
can not only assess security protection systems; they can push for
rational legal protections.
Fool’s Day, 2003, a Princeton University undergraduate was arrested
for running a file-sharing service, primarily for copyrighted music
downloads. The music industry, worried about lost royalties and copyright
infringement, has turned to law enforcement and to legislatures for
help in stamping out what is sees as music piracy.
The proposed Consumer Broadband TV/Digital Protection Act would have
placed a government-approval mechanism on every copyrighted piece
of material that would destroy the unit and report the criminal. The
bill seemed to be gaining support in Congress until its full implications
became apparent. Under the act, for example, a baby’s monitoring unit
playing "Happy Birthday to You" in his crib, could trigger
a visit from the police. Faced with such scenarios, lawmakers gave
up on the act — at least for now.
Fearing the Napster hydra growing new heads in every home office,
a host of such proposals have been making the rounds. At this stage
they may be overkill. "Most home systems operate with only 56
kilobyte modems, which can’t possibly compress sound in the way needed,"
explains Kernighan. "College students have access to the ethernet
with higher bandwidth and 10 megabyte modems."
The 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act aimed at expanding copyright
protection internationally by member-nation agreement. However, it
"prevents the circumvention of technical measures used to protect
copyright" and "prevents tampering with the integrity of copyright
management." In essence, Kernighan points out, the bill prevents
even the study of prevention devices and labels those who talk about
them as traffickers in illegal entities.
"Somewhere, we have to strike a balance between copyright and
fair use," says Kernighan. "We have to gain some accurate
realizations on privacy expectations in view of new technologies."
We also have to gain a better understanding of the technology that
is changing so many facets of our lives. Of the 535 legislators in
the House and Senate, only eight have any technical or engineering
background. True, it is their job to seek out and listen to the expert
advice. But it remains incumbent on us to learn enough to guide and
judge their decisions. Managing technology, like participating in
a democracy, strongly favors the most informed.
— Bart Jackson
With the stock market down some 3,000 points from the
highs it reached several years ago, and lay-off announcements still
in the news, it is hardly surprising that charitable donations are
of New Jersey, says some non-profits react by focusing solely on the
dollars they need to keep going. Stressed by immediate needs, they
spend little time on cultivating planned giving. But, she points out,
it is the fruits of planned giving campaigns that can keep a charity
going — in any economy.
Malzone-Ierardi speaks on "Gift Annuities: Uncommonly Good Options"
at the Eighth Annual Planned Giving Conference of the Gift Planning
Council of New Jersey, on Thursday, April 24, at 8 a.m. at the Merrill
Lynch Training Center. Among the many other speakers at the day-long
University, on "Beginning with Bequests;"
director of prospect research at Rutgers University, who speaks on
"Using the Information Highway;"
vice president for research and sponsored programs at Rutgers University,
on "Gifts of Intellectual Property;" and
vice president of development for the New Jersey Performing Arts Center,
on "How to Work with Board Members." Call 609-333-1437 for
Ierardi is the principal in Gift Planning Advisor (www.giftplanningadvisor.com),
a Plainsboro-based consulting company. She earned her J.D. at Fordham,
where she met her husband, Mark Ierardi, who works for Amper Politziner
& Mattia. The couple have two daughters, Katie, 10, and Kristen, 7,
both of whom are students at St. Paul’s School in Princeton.
Ierardi came to New Jersey to accept a job as a trust and estates
attorney with Smith & Stratton. She then worked raised money through
planned giving for the American Heart Association before opting for
the flexibility and challenge of her own consulting firm. She advises
non-profits of all sizes and with all kinds of missions, finding the
constant variety one of the key advantages of consulting. Among her
clients are Trinity Church in Princeton, NJN Public Television, and
the Liberty Science Center.
Planned giving is especially important right now, in Ierardi’s opinion.
Annual giving involves income, she points out, while planned giving
involves assets. Annual contributions tend to fall when the economy
is not doing well, but the income charities derive from planned giving
— through bequests, trusts, or annuities — continues to roll
in. Therefore, planned giving can be an important source of income
for a charity, especially during a recession, and attracting it need
not be difficult, time consuming, or expensive.
"I always advise charities to begin with bequests," says Ierardi.
Bequests are gifts made in a will. "In this country, the majority
of people don’t have a will," says Ierardi. So, she advises clients,
a good way to attract bequests is to raise awareness of the importance
of drafting a will. In doing so, a charity might suggest itself as
a beneficiary, talking about the good it could do with the bequest.
"This can be done in a newsletter," says Ierardi. It requires
no state approvals, no special expertise, and only a minimum investment
The next step is obtaining state approval to run a program of charitable
gift annuities. Ierardi explains that a charitable gift annuity is
a gift to a non-profit on which the non-profit pays an annuity —
generally in the form of a check issued four times a year — to
the donor, or the donor and his spouse, or to another person designated
by the donor. The payments continue for the life of the designated
person "even if he lives to be 120," says Ierardi.
Payments are calculated based on age; the older the person, the larger
the payment. The rationale being that an older person will be around
to collect for fewer years than will a younger person.
Charitable gift annuities are attractive to donors right now, says
Ierardi. Payments compare favorably with the miserable little amounts
CDs are earning and stack up extremely well next to the negative returns
many equities have been generating. Another attraction is that charitable
gift annuities are within reach of a great many people. Most charities
accept gift annuities in amounts as low as $5,000, and a few major
charities go even lower than that. By way of contrast, it is generally
necessary to make a six-figure gift to be eligible to set up a charitable
Making a charitable gift annuity can even be addictive. Once the checks
start rolling in, a number of people find that they like the idea
of this form of philanthropy even more than they thought they would,
says Ierardi. Many also enjoy the recognition that often comes along
with their gift, and as they read the newsletters their chosen charity
sends them, they learn more and more about the good that it does.
Additional gifts often follow.
Ierardi says charities can become creative in the ways that they market
charitable gift annuities. Often thought of as a giving tool for the
elderly, the giving vehicle can be attractive to younger philanthropists
A 45-year-old, for example, could make use of a deferred charitable
gift annuity as a retirement planning tool, electing not to begin
to receive payments until he is substantially older. To take the guesswork
out of choosing the date, the IRS recently approved flexible deferred
charitable annuities. Ierardi explains that this allows younger givers
latitude in deciding when to start accepting the payments. "Some
people want to retire at 55 if the market comes back," she gives
as an example, "but know they will put retirement off if it doesn’t
While individuals often can play around with retirement dates, continuing
to work until their nest eggs plump up again, charities faced with
a bum economy have no such options. They need to continue to feed
the hungry, shelter the homeless, put on plays for school children,
fund cancer research, and help families through disasters. An active
planned giving program, bringing in income no matter what the economy,
could provide the cushion to make all of this possible.
Myth: You have to be crazy to take a chance on investing
south of the border. Fact: A powerful, multi-national, multi-billion
dollar banking network devoted strictly to beneficial development
in the Western Hemisphere awaits your firm’s expertise, business,
All of the details are available at "How to Bid on Projects of
the Inter-American Development Bank," on Thursday, April 24, at
4:30 p.m. at Middlesex County Community College. Cost: $60. Call 732-906-2512.
The event is sponsored by the college’s International Education Center
and is hosted by
at the college. Representatives from the World Bank and the Society
of Foreign Consuls are among the presenters.
One discussion will focus on the Inter-American Development Bank’s
functions, bidding methods, and upcoming projects, and an exhibit
hall showcasing specific projects.
Founded in l959 with 19 member nations, the Inter-American Development
Bank is dedicated to "accelerating economic and social development
in Latin America, using the area’s own resources." This is accomplished
by providing loans that carry low interest rates, and yet are secure
enough to maintain the bank’s AAA ratings on the New York, Paris,
and Tokyo markets.It has worked. Today the bank and its 47 member
nations are major catalysts in mobilizing resources and providing
sound investments throughout this hemisphere.
The Inter-American Development Bank loans over $8 billion on over
10,000 contracts each year. Projects range from the very concrete,
such as improving a city’s infrastructure or telecommunications systems,
to the more complex enhancement of tourism or business management
systems. Typically bidder businesses provide commodities, expertise,
and services. Labor and staff are local. Virtually every nation in
South America, Central America, and the Caribbean acts as both loaner
and borrower. Strictly loaning nations include the United States,
major European powers, Japan, Slovenia, Croatia, and Israel. But the
program has not caught on in the Northeast.
"The Northeast companies, whether from ignorance of the bank or
just general trepidations, have always shied away from South American
business," says Blanco. It is a problem he has wrestled with since
he founded Middlesex County College’s International Education Center
As a boy, Blanco emigrated to the United States with his parents from
Cuba. At the University of Miami, he gained degrees in foreign languages
and international business. Then, as he puts it, a lovely young girl
lured him to New Jersey, where he turned his attention to promoting
Inter-American business. He is a member of the New Jersey World Bank
and the New Jersey World Trade Organization.
While the U.S. flirts with recession, South America has pulled out
of its slump and boasts an economy expanding at a solid 1.6 percent.
Blanco sees plentiful opportunities for New Jersey companies to expand
into South America, which has an increasing need for business management
knowledge, telecommunications, environmental experts, educational
firms, medical service providers, small pharmaceutical firms, and
Some of the opportunities are outlined below. New Jersey companies
with a variety of specialities could bid to do part of the work on
any of them, or on an enormous number of other projects. A comprehensive
list can be found on the Inter-American Development Bank’s website,
just loaned $240 million to support sustainable tourism in Brazil.
The project will include the establishment of ecotourism sites as
well as tourism offices in the cities. This effort will benefit 1.3
million Brazilian nationals.
So who wants to visit Brazil? Tourists by the millions are flying
(and boating) down to Rio these days, doubling tourism in the past
will establish a system of intervention zones as flood and mudslide
barriers to protect the water and sanitation system of the capitol
city of Quito. Engineering, construction, and commodities bids are
welcomed. Those aching to burst free from the bonds of city life may
want to move out to Ecuador’s Amazon frontier where a $10 million
loan will improve the life of indigenous farming communities.
to help "productivity and efficiency of small and mid-size business
management technology." Business consultants of all types are
been part of large plan to establish video and other school aids in
rural southern Mexico, where televisions showing educational programs
are set up in remote villages. "One of the largest benefits is
to teach these people Spanish, in addition to local native dialects
in use," notes Blanco. "Surprisingly," he adds, "Mexico
has over 20 million residents who do not speak the necessary national
language of Spanish."
Japan, whose fishing boats are banned from inside the 200-mile limit
of most South American coasts, has invested heavily in expanding local
fleets and purchasing the fish. The United States has heartily supported
Mexican infrastructure improvement projects that allow regional oil
to flow northward. The bank’s goal of accelerating economic and social
development still stands, yet this is not a charitable giveaway. Each
of these enterprises is undertaken for sound business reasons.
Profits have always gone to those willing to venture into new territories.
With so many business arenas so cold, crowded, and static at home,
it may be time to cast consider the warmer climate fostered by investment
from the Inter-American Development Bank.
— Bart Jackson
Winter, war, and overwork woes loom large as spring
continues to play coy. The new Conference Center at Mercer is holding
out relief in the form of a Fish! conference. As even those who assiduously
avoid books shelved under the heading of "business inspiration"
know, Fish! is a wildly successful motivation philosophy built around
the frolicsome approach to work of a group of fishmongers at Seattle’s
Pike Place Fish Market. By injecting some circus into the business
to carving up and selling fish, the fishmongers made their company
famous, and inspired a series of books and lectures centered on simple
lessons drawn from their approach to work.
three with the recent addition of Fish! Sticks. He speaks at Mercer’s
conference, "Fish! A Remarkable Way to Boost Morale and Improve
Results," on Thursday, April 24, at 8 a.m. The full-day event
also features workshops on, among other things, "Setting the Boundaries,"
"Choosing Your Attitude," and "Making Their Day."
Workshop leaders include
for Training and Development at Mercer County Community College;
Wilson, director of human resources, Mercer County Community College;
Elliott Moore, principal, Fully Awake Inc.; and
customer service consultant. Price: $195. Call 609-586-4800, ext.
Paul, a professional speaker associated with Nelson Motivation in
San Diego, writes about the origins of the Fish! movement in an article
for Executive Update. Here is an excerpt from the article:
grow up and become a fishmonger. But these people who work at the
market love their jobs and have made it world famous. Not only because
of their trademark — throwing fish across the market and shouting
out and repeating everyone’s order — but because they bring an
attitude, a passion, an energy to their work that is infectious. They
show us that no matter what you do you can enjoy your work and be
successful as well. People from all over the world want to learn how
the Pike Place "Fish Team" does it.
It’s about doing things differently. Lou Platt, former CEO of Hewlett
Packard, said, "Whatever made you successful in the past, won’t
in the future." The fishmongers know this well. Once a month they
get together to talk about what is working and what needs to be done
differently. It’s about being fast and flexible, fresh and different.
They look at their culture and ask, "How can we make it better?"
Their culture is what made them world famous. Theirs is a culture
that allows them all to be who they are, with passion, energy, and
Creating that culture has rewards beyond being world famous. Ten years
ago, the market was striving to be no better than its competition
(there are several other fish markets at Pike Place alone). With "business
as usual" these people almost went out of business. That’s when
one of the younger fishmongers challenged them to do things differently.
He challenged them to become world famous, to act like they had something
special — and to do so every day — which caused them to become
both world famous and successful.
What once was a good week in sales revenue now represents a bad morning.
What changed? The market is the same; ownership is the same; a lot
of the employees are the same; and, obviously, everyone still sells
the same types of fish. What changed was the culture. As that culture
evolved, it became a philosophy and then a passion, one that allowed
the fish market to thrive, not just survive. The philosophy has four
parts: Choose your attitude; play; be there; and, make their day.
a different way, no matter what your work is. Are you washing windows
or providing clear vision? Are you washing dishes or providing people
with a germ-free environment from which to consume food? When you
look at work this way, your choice of attitude is clear and simple.
Choose to be magnificent.
things growing up: Work and play are separate activities. "When
you finish your homework, you can go play. When you’re done with your
chores, you can go play." No wonder we think work and play can’t go
hand-in-hand. Yes, work can be fun, no matter what you do.
of the Fish! philosophy. It’s not just about paying attention, looking
people in the eyes, and listening. It’s about understanding your culture,
your values, and your mission and how you live them on a day-to-day
basis. It’s about being part of the team. Being there comes from the
heart and from making a difference in people’s lives.
say "Wow! That felt good." It’s about the experience people
have when they do business with you. What will the customer remember
about doing business with you?
choice of whether you want to make a difference and feel good about
what you are doing, regardless of the job. Take yourself seriously
and your work less seriously.
<d>Fay Elliott Moore, a self-employed HR consultant,
put herself through college and graduate school part time, a process
that took 15 years. She worked a number of jobs to meet her tuition
bills. Among them was secretary, where she drew a boss for whom no
one else would work. A perfectionist back in the days before computers
made typewriter ribbons and carbon paper obsolete, he demanded that
the letters going out over his signature contain no mistakes —
none at all. Moore, who had failed typing in college, soon developed
a crick in her neck from bending tensely over the keys, typing the
same letter over and over until it was flawless.
She also developed an attitude that endeared her to the proverbial
"boss from hell."
"I was a business major, so I wanted to learn all about his business,"
she recalls. She got to know her boss’s clients, and their issues.
"I became an integral part of his business," she says. Before
long, the formerly-imperious boss was eager to become her mentor.
Moore had found a way to take control of her job, and she took the
skill with her when she moved on. "You don’t have control unless
you take control," she says.
Moore, principal in the Lawrenceville-based Fully Awake Inc.,
leads a workshop on achieving work/life balance at "Take Charge
of Your Success!," a day-long event beginning at 9 a.m. on Friday,
April 25 at the Conference Center at Mercer, which is located on the
West Windsor campus of Mercer County Community College. Also speaking
consulting firm the Lindenberger Group;
keynote speaker, who is deputy commissioner of the New Jersey Department
Premier Financial Planning; and nutritionist
$129. Call 609-586-9446.
In preparing for the conference, Moore conducted an informal survey
of administrative professionals she knows to determine what issues
are most important to them. "They don’t have control over their
time," she found. A common scenario involves the boss who says
a report needs to be on his desk tomorrow, and then comes back later
in the day and piles on more work, which also is due tomorrow. "Managers
are not clear in communicating their needs," she says. "They
don’t tell them (their administrative assistants) where they’re going."
This leaves the administrative professionals outside of the communications
loop, and floundering with multiple assignments and no sense of the
The situation becomes more complicated, a number of administrative
professionals reported, because they often need to field assignments
from multiple bosses.
Moore empathizes. She has been there, and not only during her years
as a secretary. A native of New York City, and a graduate of Marist
College (Class of 1977), she holds an MBA in organizational behavior
from Rutgers, has worked for PriceWaterhouseCoopers and Merrill Lynch,
and has spent a number of years working as a consultant. At one point,
she was in a consulting firm with three partners. "One wanted
me to be in San Francisco; one wanted me to be in Chicago," she
says of a common tug of war. The way to get out from the middle, she
says, is to throw the issue back on the partners or bosses, and make
them decide among themselves which assignment needs to be the priority.
Here are more suggestions of her suggestions for taming work and achieving
and tracking their health and progress for decades turned up an amazing
factoid. "Two percent of the men put their goals in writing,"
says Moore. "Those two percent have earned 80 percent of all of
the money earned by the group."
Moore has seen the power of putting goals in writing in her own life.
When she was in college, a representative of a Big Eight accounting
firm visited her school, and she decided on the spot that she wanted
to work for such a firm. She knew her goal was not realistic. "They
don’t hire from obscure schools," she explains. Nevertheless,
she wrote down the goal, and "put it on a shelf." Eleven years
later she was hired by PriceWaterhouseCoopers into what she says was
her dream job, one she would still have if the traveling hadn’t eventually
gotten to her.
draw a pie chart of their lives. How much time is devoted to career?
to family? to health? to personal development? to making money? to
social and community activities?
Each person has just so many "packets of energy," Moore says.
It is easy to say that family comes first, or that nothing is more
important than good health, or that reaching toward a better job is
a top priority. But a look at how those energy packets are spent may
tell a different story. "If all of your energy goes into your
job, there is nothing left over," she says. Take the time to sketch
out where the hours of the day are spent and the conflict between
stated priorities and real priorities may be stark.
eight-minute mile, re-connecting with far-flung cousins, or earning
an advanced degree and there is a good chance that goal will become
The alternative for so many time-stressed employees is to surrender
to others’ priorities and to just float along. But, says Moore, "even
if you think you’re not choosing, you are." Hanging around in
an office spending the better part of each day complaining about "that
crazy boss" is a choice, and an especially draining one at that.
important for administrative professionals. Moore says she has a sense
that Gen Xers are better at asserting themselves than were their mothers.
This is good, but she says that the art, while essential, needs to
be practiced carefully to avoid any appearance of whining.
"Pick your battles," is her advice. She says that suffering
silently erodes any respect superiors might have, but that a constant
unwillingness to take on extra work can kill a career. If the issue,
for instance, is a request to work late, she suggests that administrative
professionals pitch in cheerfully on some occasions. Having done so,
they have won the right to say a firm and confident "no" to
late nights on other occasions.
late night was not enough. "I was commuting four hours a day;
I was working my butt off," she says. It wasn’t enough, and she
was smart enough to know it. That boss would never be happy without
enormous quantities of face time, so she transferred away from him.
Putting in the same hours for a new boss, she won rave reviews. She
realizes that staying with the first boss would have seriously hurt
her desire for a life outside the office, and, furthermore, would
have damaged her career.
friendly with the "boss from hell" for whom she worked as
a student. The key in both cases, she says, is "don’t play."
Life is too short to waste complaining about a bad boss. Learn to
work with him (or, of course, her) in a way that furthers your professional
and personal goals, or move on.
The Woodrow Wilson School puts the presidency of George
W. Bush under a magnifying glass on Friday and Saturday, April 25
and 26. "The George W. Bush Presidency: An Early Assessment"
begins at 9 a.m. on the 25th and runs through noon on the 26th. It
is free and open to the public. A full schedule is on the school’s
website at www.wws.princeton.edu.
Sponsored by the Program in Leadership Studies, the Center for the
Study of Democratic Politics, the Center of International Studies,
and the Woodrow Wilson School, the conference consists of a number
of seminars and workshops. Discussing "George W. Bush: Man and
Polytechnic Institute; and
Speaking on "The Politics of the Bush Administration" are
who looks at "Partisan Patterns and Congress in a 50-50 Government;"
Bush Revolution: The Remaking of America’s Foreign Policy."
Journalists who cover Bush discuss the president in a roundtable.
Cannon of the National Journal;
secretary from 1995 to 1998; and
Corrections or additions?
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