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This article by Kathleen McGinn Spring was prepared for the

February 5, 2003 edition of U.S. 1 Newspaper. All rights reserved.

In Engineering, New Standards for the Old Boys

Maria Klawe was recruited to make Princeton

University’s

School of Engineering and Applied Sciences — now ranked 18th in

the nation — a first-rate school. She took over as dean on January

1, and is the first woman to hold that position. An accomplished

scientist,

with a deep resume in both industry and academia, it would be

reasonable

to expect that at this stage of her career she would find being

identified

as the "woman" dean tedious.

No, not really, she says. Dressed in black jeans and a casual

black-and-white

patterned blouse, with a multi-colored scarf tucked in at the neck,

Klawe, back from a one-hour run — at the low end of her usual

workout — betrays no hint of irritation at being labeled the new

"woman" dean of engineering.

"It’s my life," she says. "It’s always been `the first

woman,’ or `the only woman,’ or `one of only a few women.’ It doesn’t

bother me." She says she has spent "a huge amount of time"

over the past 15 years working on the problem of what it takes to

bring women into science and technology. Growing up interested in

"boy things," Klawe, who enjoys hiking, biking, and

snorkeling,

as well as running, says this gives her an edge when she finds herself

the only woman in a group of 10 or 15 people. The women who stick

it out in engineering, she says, are those who are "comfortable

working in an area with a male — no, with a white male —

culture."

Changing that culture by making it a place where women can thrive

is part of her mission, but only part. There need to be more

under-represented

minorities in engineering as well, she says. Furthermore, the

discipline

needs to reach out to men who are turned off by its image as a boring

pursuit. Beyond working on engineering’s image, Klawe aims to change

engineering itself, starting with the way the discipline is taught

at Princeton.

There are six schools of engineering at Princeton, and each pretty

much operates alone. "Computer has some overlap," she says,

"and so do some of the others, but they don’t work

cohesively."

While the schools operate in vacuums, they also largely operate apart

from the rest of the university. "And worse," says Klawe,

"the rest of Princeton University doesn’t take advantage of

them."

This is unacceptable, particularly now, says Klawe, because

"technology

is playing such a huge role in society." One of her goals is to

broaden the mix of people in the applied sciences so that they come

to mirror the demographics of society itself. Another is

cross-pollinating

the applied sciences with other disciplines, not only with the pure

sciences, but also with the humanities — with creative writing,

for example, and with ethics.

Klawe reports that Sasha, her 17-year-old daughter, says she is

"`selling

out’" by taking on her new assignment. The move to Princeton takes

Klawe away from the University of British Columbia, where she served

as dean of science. "`Didn’t you always tell us Canada was better

than the United States?’" asked Sasha. "`Didn’t you always

tell us that public colleges were better than private colleges,

especially

elite private colleges?’" Klawe says she answered her daughter’s

questions with a "yes" and a "yes." But she couldn’t

resist taking the job anyway.

You can bring in women faculty; you can increase female

enrollment; you can create ground breaking programs, but, says Klawe,

if you do it north of the border, "people in the states will say,

"`oh yes, but that was in Canada.’" If, however, significant

change

takes place at a Princeton, the world takes notice, and may well

follow

right along.

"This is an incredible opportunity," says Klawe. "I love

British Columbia more than anything, but I’m coming here for the

opportunity."

Princeton is a relatively small school, she points out, putting

substantial

change more easily in reach than it would be at a bigger school.

"In

five to ten years, we could do something really amazing," she

says. "Princeton is such a visible university. If we can attract

more women and under-represented minorities; if we can add programs;

we will have an importance beyond Princeton."

Klawe, who has been too busy to house hunt, is commuting back and

forth between Princeton and Vancouver, where Sasha is finishing up

high school, and where Nick Pippenger, her husband, is Canada Research

Chair in Computer Science at the University of British Columbia. In

the summer, Pippenger joins Princeton’s department of computer science

as a professor. Soon after, Sasha enrolls as a freshman at the

University

of New Hampshire. Janek, the couple’s son, is about to finish his

studies in computer science at the University of British Columbia.

Klawe was born in Ontario, the daughter of two professors. Her mother,

Kathleen, who lives in Vancouver, taught economics, and her father,

Janusz, who is deceased, taught cartography. The family moved to

Scotland

when Klawe was four, and then moved back to Canada, to Alberta, when

she was twelve.

In addition to her enthusiasm for outdoor activities,

Klawe "always painted." An accomplished artist (see a

selection

of her watercolors online at www.science.ubc.ca/main/klawe/maria),

she debated over whether to have a career as an artist or as a

scientist,

and studied both math and art as an undergraduate at the University

of Alberta (Class of 1973). Her career decision: Retain art as a

serious

avocation, but make a full-time career of science. Her rationale,

at least in part, is that it is possible to become a full-time artist

after achieving in science, but the reverse is not true.

With this in mind, Klawe earned a Ph.D. in mathematics from the

University

of Alberta. The year was 1977, and she found few positions for math

professors. Looking around, she saw more opportunities in computer

science and began a second graduate degree. Soon after doing so, she

was called for interviews at a number of universities, and accepted

a position with the University of Toronto. She quickly decided that

teaching at a university was what she wanted to do.

Then Cupid intervened — she met Nick Peppinger. "We’re two

different people," says an outgoing Klawe. "I describe him

as a hermit/genius." While their personalities diverged, the two

agreed that having children was a priority. "I decided getting

married and having children would be enough of a disruption of his

life," says Klawe. Changing his work would have been too much

to ask. He was working at IBM, and so she signed on too, heading with

her new husband to California as part of a new project group. At IBM

she founded the Discrete Mathematics Group and served as manager of

the Department of Mathematics and Related Computer Science.

In every dual career household, she says, trade-offs are necessary.

She gave up teaching to accommodate her husband’s career, but agreed

to do so only temporarily. She planned to spend three to five years

at IBM before returning to teaching, but the work stretched to eight

years. Then, in 1988, the couple began to consider other

opportunities.

"We had offers from a number of companies and universities,"

says Klawe. "We chose B.C.," she says of the University of

British Columbia, where she signed on as head of the Department of

Computer Science. "There was no prestige, the salary was terrible,

and there were no resources," she says. The attraction was the

ability to make a difference. "We were idealistic," she says.

"We wanted the place where we would have the most impact."

During her years at the University of British Columbia,

Klawe rose to become Dean of Science. In recruiting her, the

university

promised to devote resources to the applied sciences, something it

had not done in the past. "We used to joke that the school was

ranked number 75 in North America," she says. During her tenure,

the school moved up to number 20. Klawe hired 11 people, and started

new programs. Among her projects was the design of interactive

multimedia

technologies for use in teaching mathematics, reading, and science.

She led the design of several software products, including one,

Phoenix

Quest, which is a mathematical game geared toward students age 10

to 14, with particular attention to the interests of girls.

During her years at the University of British Columbia, Klawe also

held the NSERC-IBM Chair for Women in Science and Engineering, where

her responsibilities included increasing the participation of women

in information technology careers.

Beyond seeking an assignment where she could make a difference, Klawe

chose the University of British Columbia because her children were

young — three and six — and her parents lived in Vancouver.

She wanted the children to have the advantage of living near their

grandparents.

While many successful people credit their parents with setting them

on the road to career success, Klawe is especially grateful to her

parents for keeping her going on the road she chose. They were

unfailingly

encouraging of her efforts to combine work and children. "They

always said `you’re children are perfect; you’re doing everything

right!’"

This was important, says Klawe, because she knew she wanted to

continue

working after she had children. Her mother had taken 12 years off

from work to have four children. "In that time economics research

changed," says Klawe. "It became more mathematical. She never

really got back into research."

Mindful of the perils of dropping her own research, Klawe proclaimed

that she would continue working after starting a family. She received

no encouragement from co-workers.

"They all said `you’ll want to stay home! Just wait and see.’"

She did not know a single woman who was working and raising children,

and her confidence in her ability to do so was running a little low

when a felicitous meeting gave her the boost she needed.

"Shortly after my son was born, I went to a conference," she

recounts. "There was a woman there; she was a professor and her

husband was in computer science. She had children. She was happy;

her husband was happy; the children were happy." Seeing flesh

and blood evidence that the juggling act could maintain its rhythm

without child or career crashing to the floor, Klawe, a woman who

takes good mothering very seriously, was encouraged. Her parents’

cheerleading took her the rest of the way.

She has the following advice for young women planning on combining

a challenging career with children. First, choose a spouse who will

share child raising. "This is not absolutely essential, but it

helps a lot," she says. Second, choose a career that pays enough

to cover high-quality child care. Not only will the children be better

off, but mom will have the peace of mind necessary to concentrate

on her work. Third, choose a career with flexibility. That way, when

children perform in their first pre-school concerts, getting away

from work will not be a deception-laced nightmare.

Still, combining child care with running a university department,

conducting independent research, developing software, and attending

conferences involves trade offs. A good chunk of leisure, not to

mention

most social life, disappears. But whole new interests appear. "I

told my kids, if there was anything they really loved, I would do

it with them," says Klawe. As a result, she has become an expert

at shopping for teen fashions, kayaking, and playing complex computer

games. She recently ran a half-marathon with her daughter and has

spent a number of Christmas breaks working through complex computer

games — including Final Fantasy VII — with her son. "He

led me through," she says. "That cut the playing time from

150 hours to 50 hours."

Another indulgence Klawe and her husband jettisoned while raising

children was vacations. Then, to celebrate her 50th birthday a

year-and-a-half

ago, the couple went snorkeling in Crete. "We hadn’t been on a

vacation in 20 years," she says.

She is now hooked on the concept of leisure combined with swimming

in warm water surrounded by waving coral and a rainbow of darting

fish. "That was July," she dates her birthday trip. "Then

in December, we went to Cancun. I really liked that." The

following

March she returned to Cancun with her youngest sister. Two months

later, she and her husband returned to Greece. Then, last Christmas,

she traveled to the Mayan Peninsula with her whole family for more

snorkeling.

Adding vacationing to regular outdoor activity, time with family,

painting, music (she plays the guitar), research, technology

collaboration,

and university administration makes Klawe pretty much the definition

of a well-rounded person. She wants Princeton to do with its applied

science program what she is doing with her life. She wants it involved

in lots more than the lab. In embracing the entire university, and

in encouraging the university to take advantage of all it has to

offer,

the department will become a model for the integration of science

and everyday life.

Along the way, Klawe is convinced, Princeton’s department of

engineering

and applied sciences will rise from its current U.S. News and World

Report ranking of 18.

"Not all the criteria U.S. News uses is what you would care

about,"

Klawe admits. Still, the department is not first rate, she says, and

it should be.

Klawe quickly acknowledges that the department has done — and

is doing — important work. But the infrastructure and support

to move to the next level just are not in place. "Our resources

are not competitive," she says. "The buildings, the equipment,

the standard infrastructure to do major research and education are

not here."

She says Princeton needs to improve, but does not need to be number

one. "Nobody says Princeton University is competing with M.I.T.,

Berkeley, or Stanford," she says of schools that are far larger

than Princeton. M.I.T. holds the number one spot in the nation based

on criteria that include admission standards, faculty/student ratio,

and money spent on research. Berkeley and Stanford are tied for number

two. "I would like to be ranked number five," says Klawe.

Beyond a bump up in the national rankings, Klawe wants

Princeton to demonstrate just how well an engineering department can

be integrated within a university and how much it can contribute to

a university. "We really could be a leader," she says.

"Because

we’re so small, we could do that really well. We should be able to

do amazing things."

Klawe says she has the university’s support in making the dream a

reality.

"I didn’t ask for anything when I came here," says Klawe.

She didn’t extract a commitment for any dollar amount of research

money, or a promise for specific new buildings, or a guarantee of

a certain number of additional faculty spots.

While she threw no numbers on the table, Klawe did ask for a

university

commitment to taking the department to excellence. During her first

year as dean she will lead a strategic planning initiative. "We

will plan for additional faculty, students, infrastructure," she

says. "We will identify three or four key initiatives."

The plan will then be reviewed and approved by key university

stakeholders.

What Klawe asked of Shirley Tilghman, president of the university

and a molecular biologist, is this: "When we come up with a plan,

you have to commit to it. You’ll support the plan."

She anticipates no difficulty with follow-through. "Engineering

is at the top of Shirley’s priorities," she says. "The bottom

line for her is that it has to be a Princeton engineering school.

It has to fit with the fabric of the university."

Weaving engineering into the intellectual life of the campus will

involve what Klawe likes to call "finding the overlap." In

developing a computer-based assistive device for individuals with

brain injury, and related loss of speech, she is working with

cognitive

scientists, speech pathologists, computer scientists, and those who

will use the devices. The disciplines overlap, and so will the

findings.

This sort of work, says Klawe, could show women, and others turned

off by engineering’s boring image, that the discipline is about more

than writing code. It is also about improving lives.

"Look for the overlap," says Klawe. "Always look for the

overlap." She does this in a number of ways, many of them familiar

to working women everywhere. She combines work with friendship by

meeting up with her pals at conferences. She combines research with

parenting by studying how computer games work as she plays Final

Fantasy

VII with her son. She uses travel time for research. "An airplane

is the perfect place for math research," she says. Her friends,

who tend to be scientists and parents, all juggle this way.

Klawe, however, has taken "overlap" to whole new levels.

"I

paint three or four times a week," she says. That in itself is

quite the feat for a person who is traveling across the continent

twice a week and who says her work entails putting in "60 hours

on a good week; 75 hours on a bad week." But the way she fits

in her painting takes "overlap" to a whole new level.

"On Friday I go to a board of trustees meeting at UCLA," she

says. "I will paint throughout the meeting." At all of the

long meetings she attends, Klawe arranges her paints, brushes, and

canvas in front of her, and proceeds to work. "When I first

started

people were curious," she says. "Some found it offensive."

She silenced the nay-sayers by pointing out that, occupied with paint

and brush, "I don’t take up as much air time." Left without

a second focus, she says she tends to do more than her share of

talking.

So, she convinced fellow attendees, practicing her avocation while

business is conducted is a good thing — for everyone.

But can she attend to the proceedings while creating art? Of course,

she replies, "I use two different channels."

If finding the overlap is what will make Princeton’s department of

engineering and applied sciences a top-ranked model of inclusiveness,

ingenuity, and synergy, who better to lead the way than a sell-out

from Canada who may just be the world’s most accomplished

multi-tasker.


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