Corrections or additions?
This article by Pat Summers was prepared for the October 9, 2002 edition of U.S. 1 Newspaper. All rights reserved.
Artworks’ Pixilated Prints
Could Rembrandt van Rijn, the 17th-century Dutch master
of the etching and the artist whose name springs to mind at the word
"print," possibly have foreseen this century’s wide world
Supplementing the range of "prints" available from home decorators
and catalogs are those made from "museum masterpieces" and
transferred to "artist’s canvas" with "textural finishes."
Thomas Kinkade became known as "America’s most profitable artist"
about a year ago when he recorded sales of his art-based products
totaling 10 million. And Kinkade is only the most visible purveyor
of what one writer has called "Art for Everybody."
And while Kinkade has numerous rivals for this market, he’s cleaning
up right now: prices for lithographic reproductions of his paintings
range from $1,500 for the standard numbered editions, to $34,000 for
prints that Kinkade personally highlights.
Is it any wonder that art collectors are confused? Prospective print
buyers are faced, it sometimes seems, with so many things called "prints"
that the very word, "print," can mean everything — and
then, ultimately, nothing. Considering the advertisements and jargon
(giclee and inkjet and pigmented inks and limited editions): "Is
Where can print-beleaguered art lovers turn? To Artworks, Trenton’s
visual arts school and gallery. There, through November 1, they can
see and study "Digital Print Interpretations," an exhibition
of inkjet prints by five notable area artists — Ruane Miller,
Dallas Piotrowski, Fay Sciarra, Madelaine Shellaby, and William Vandever.
A lunchtime talk and an evening panel discussion are scheduled in
conjunction with the show.
To shed light on the subject of contemporary art prints while pleasing
viewers with the variety of uses artists are finding for today’s Epson
inkjet and Iris printers, Artworks is showcasing the work of pioneer-veterans
in this medium. Two of the artists, Piotrowski and Sciarra, use it
to reproduce their own original paintings; three others, Miller, Shellaby,
and Vandever, create original works through this medium. Because in
all cases computers are involved in production of the prints on view,
the work can collectively be called "digital art."
Traditionally — since the earliest Chinese woodcut in the ninth
century — a work of art on paper, or print, was created in one
of four ways (or some combination of them), made memorable with this
formula, courtesy of the Zimmerli Art Museum’s print curator: "over,
under, around, and through."
A relief print ("over") is produced when paper picks up ink
from a raised surface; the parts not to be printed have been carved
away. "Under" occurs with an intaglio (for "incision")
print: ink is forced out of incised grooves onto damp paper. "Around"
refers to ink’s attraction to oil and avoidance of water — so
in lithography, a crayon drawing that is kept wet will reproduce onto
paper because the ink sticks to the greasy material. Finally, "through"
describes how a stencil or screenprint is made: ink is pushed onto
paper through a screen on which all but the design is blocked.
Traditional art prints were often "limited editions," meaning
that only a specified number of impressions would be made, and that
the artist would sign each one and indicate its position in the edition
— for instance, "7/20" denotes the seventh print in an
edition of 20. Once the edition was complete, the artist might well
mark or "cancel" the original image, rendering further prints
Once it came along, photography (with its own "prints")
occupied a field separate from printmaking. Now, of course, some photography
is also part of the world of digital art prints.
Just as they had come to mix and match traditiional printmaking methods,
some artists didn’t take long to see computers and printers as potential
new mediums. Software used in home and office — remember the advent
of "computer graphics" — demonstrated such potential that
its possibilities swiftly expanded to commercial machines and sites.
From wood and stone blocks and metal sheets as mediums for printmaking,
some artists have segued into computer-generated or "digital art."
Others, not even printmakers to begin with, built on their affinity
with computers to move into this medium.
And that brings us back to the Artworks exhibition and the five artists
whose work can be seen there.
At first, William Vandever’s (untitled) image seems to show birds
of various sizes, aloft in a blue and white sky, with a row of evergreens
below. Yet this landscape somehow has a surreal note — especially
when a closer look reveals the "birds" are actually maple
leaf "noses," strangely pale and butterflied open.
After collecting a windfall of "noses" and photographing them
on a light box to look transparent, Vandever had electronically filed
the pictures for future use. He had also scanned into his computer
pieces of trimmed evergreens that he noticed resembled whole trees.
And the sky came from an earlier landscape photograph of his —
also in his image files.
At his computer, Vandever manipulated and assembled the separate parts
selected for this new image; for example, he adjusted for size and
placement of the noses. Satisfied with the result, he used computer
software to stretch the whole thing into a panoramic print image.
At another time, he might hand-color a black and white photograph
and add it to his computer mix toward a new image.
A commercial and art photographer-member of the Princeton Artists
Alliance, Vandever teaches part-time at the College of New Jersey
and the Lawrenceville School — and creates and processes his own
digital prints. His equipment includes an Epson 7500 printer —
one of the two brands that, with Iris, produces ink jet prints or
"giclee" prints, respectively. When a Vandever edition —
usually 25 impressions — is finished, he destroys the negative
or deletes the file.
Fay Sciarra’s charming, colorfully patterned, often-whimsical paintings
quickly became collector’s items over the last few years, after she
left TV producing, and took up painting. Shown widely, her work has
caught on and appreciated. About five years ago, she first dipped
her figurative toes into printed reproductions of her acrylic paintings;
now she refers to "300 people who own my work who otherwise wouldn’t."
Sciarra’s move into prints "means reaching a wider audience, and
that gives me pleasure," she says. She works closely with Michal
Smith, of Silicon Gallery/Micats, in Philadelphia, to produce limited-edition
"archival pigmented ink jet prints." Reproductions are via
either an Epson or Iris printer.
Before the proofing process can end — when the artist is satisfied
with the "translation" of her paints on canvas to the new
medium of inks on watercolor paper — she may travel back and forth
to Philadelphia a dozen times. At home, she signs and numbers prints
— editions range from 95 to 250 — and may hand-embellish them
Sciarra’s prints at Artworks include "Cowboy Chic," showing
the inside of a log house, replete with patterns — pony skin,
rag rugs, and native American blankets — even striped wood walls
and rounded multi-colored stones in the fireplace. A diamond-shaped
work, its frame includes twining twigs that accent the image.
Ruane Miller does all the work — painting, photography,
scanning, imaging, printing — involved with her original digital
prints. Coordinator of digital arts in the College of New Jersey’s
art department, she arrived in 1986 to set up the program, which now
boasts four full-time faculty members. (College of New Jersey opens
its own groundbreaking exhibition of digital art by U.S. and European
artists this week, titled `Evidencing,’ and on view to November 6.)
Miller’s technical process includes digitally scanning both her photographed
images — landscapes, wildflowers, wildlife, and people — and
her paintings and sketches of similar subjects. Through computerized
"painterly manipulation and compositing techniques," she recombines
earlier images into new ones, which she calls "believable but
In limited editions of 25, Miller’s prints represent her attempt "to
capture the essence of the Southwest — its vast and penetrating
beauty of contrasts." Her "Three Graces" shows totemic
figures facing rivers and falls composed of flowing ribbons of color.
A distinctive patterned border defines a landscape of mountain peaks
and a big sky filled with clouds in "12 Guardians." Rainbow-hued,
mummy-like shapes, echoing those in "Three Graces," stand
She is also showing "A Goddess’ Web," the same memorable image
that is on view in the Princeton Artists Alliance’s current "Odyssey"
show at the Newark Museum. Miller uses an Epson 9500 wide-format digital
printer with archival art papers to create her "digitally imaged
archival ink jet prints."
Of her original print images at Artworks, softly suggestive of the
human body, Madelaine Shellaby says, "They’re all diffused. If
you stand back, they become resolved." This is the first time,
she says, that she has "used her own body to explore some notions,"
pushing both the color and texture of this medium.
In Shellaby’s hands, self-portraiture manages to involve abstract
form, as well as faint mists of gentle color. She attempts to merge
how she sees her body with how others perceive it, noting, "The
human body is an infinite resource for exploration."
Shellaby describes the digital medium as "electronically elastic,"
having used it before to invent garden specimens by combining various
plant parts with a scanner and software, and pairing images and text
for both theoretical and actual book pages. Although her limited editions
of 10 are produced at Taylor Photographics (on an Epson 9500 with
pigmented inks), Shellaby uses her own computer setup for the proofing
involved in achieving the final image. An art teacher at the Stuart
School in Princeton, Shellaby is also a member of the Princeton Artists
Besides being a familiar, active figure in the area art world, Dallas
Piotrowski is also the prime mover behind the Artworks exhibition.
A long-time painter whose fanciful wildlife images are part of her
signature, she is a relative newcomer to the world of prints. As such,
Piotrowski has talked about and talked up the subject, sharing her
research and experience.
She took to the idea of print reproductions of her paintings, Piotrowski
says, "because it takes a long time to come up with an idea, then
when a painting is sold, the price never reflects the value, and one
person owns it." Limited edition prints — hers range from
25 to 500 — "supplement the artist’s income."
Piotrowski usually works in series, and the exhibition includes some
of her endangered animals series. In a new vein, she is also showing
some images with stories that viewers must read for themselves. "Cochin"
may be one of those. It shows a chicken-headed man in a chalk-striped
suit, wearing turquoise jewelry, with talon-like nails. A pair of
dice, showing a 3 and a 1, are positioned near him.
Piotrowski wants her prints to look "exactly like the original
watercolor or acrylic painting," and she often enhances the post-production
color. Her digital prints are produced by Crimson Atelier on an Epson
9600 with pigmented inks. Besides signing and numbering her prints,
she provides buyers with a certificate of authenticity.
These five artists are eager to spread the word about digital art
prints. Their printed statements, coupled with the lunchtime talk
and evening panel — and starring of course their varied and appealing
work — should go a long way toward building understanding and
So much so that a question suggests itself: What would Rembrandt do?
Or, to rephrase a current cliche, "WWRD?" Would Rembrandt,
exponent of the classic print form, be spinning now, or wishing he
could get with the program?
Alley, Trenton, 609-394-9436. Gallery hours: Monday to Friday, 9 a.m.
to 5 p.m. A lunchtime talk is scheduled for Thursday, October 17,
at noon. Panel discussion Tuesday, October 22, at 7 p.m. Show runs
through Friday, November 1.
609-252-6275. "Up the River, Now" works by contemporary
painters in the Delaware Valley area. Artists include Elizabeth Augenblick,
Joseph Barrett, Robert Beck, Malcolm Bray, Tom Chesar, Anne Cooper
Dobbins, Suzanne Douglass, Evelyn Faherty, and James Feehan. Monday
to Friday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; weekends and holidays, 1 to 5 p.m. To
Street, 609-924-8777. "Double Vision," an exhibition of new
works in handmade paper by Marie Sturken and Joan B. Needham. Gallery
open Monday to Friday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; weekends by appointment.
To October 11.
Solo show of etchings and anamorphic works by European artist Istvan
Orosz. Gallery hours are Tuesday to Saturday, 10:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.
Show runs to October 24.
Dining room show of original paintings by Livy Glaubitz. Part of proceeds
benefit the Medical Center. Show may be viewed daily from 8 a.m. to
7 p.m. To November 13.
Mixed-media works by Beth Haber. Open Monday to Thursday, 9 a.m. to
5 p.m.; Friday and Sunday, 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. To October 30.
Jorge Armenteros, owner of Little Taste of Cuba, introduces "Artista
Cuba," an exhibition of contemporary Cuban folk art presented
on the walls of Triumph. Show is on view through December.
Armenteros has been studying and collecting Cuban art since 1996.
He gravitates toward art that illustrates "the spirit of the Cuban
people, their creativity, inspiration, sensuality, and zest for life."
Shared show celebrates the gallery’s first anniversary with works
by Jay Anderson, Robert Borsuk, H. Gartlgruber, Jay Goodkind, Ed Greenblat,
Rhoda Kassof-Isaac, James Lattanzio, David Miller, and Ingeborg Snipes.
Open Saturday and Sunday, noon to 5 p.m. To October 15.
Fantasy images by illustrator, poet, and musician Robert Sebbo. Open
Tuesday to Friday, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Saturday, 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. To
Phillips Mill juried exhibition, a prominent showcase for art of the
region, with $10,000 in awards. Regular admission is $3 adult; $2
senior; $1 student. Show is open daily, 1 to 5 p.m., to October 27.
Road, 609-921-3272. "Shared Visions: Fourteen Women Artists after
Fourteen Years of Collaboration," a show by members of the group
Root Talk. To October 20. Gallery hours are Tuesdays through Fridays,
10 a.m. to 3 p.m.; Sundays 1 to 4 p.m.
In the Upstairs Gallery, "Color Rhythms," a shared exhibition
by Seow-Chu See and Gloria Wiernik. Meet the artists Sundays, October
27, and November 3, at 1 p.m. To November 5.
"Still Dreaming," a show of recent paintings by Christine
Lafuente. Gallery is open Wednesday to Saturday, 10 a.m. to 6 p.m.;
Sunday, noon to 5 p.m. To October 31. "I try to convey, first
and foremost, the joy of seeing, for that is my lifeline as a painter,"
says Lafuente, who works in still life, landscape, and figurative
Lawrenceville, 609-296-0334. Garden State Watercolor Society sixth
annual Associate Member Juried Exhibition, judged by Betty Stroppel
and Ed Baumlin. To November 22.
Georges Road, South Brunswick, 732-524-3350. `Art as Sanctuary,’ a
group show off works by 17 South Brunswick visual artists nad literary
artists. On view Saturday and Sundays, 1 to 4 p.m., to October 27.
the Visible: A Conservator’s Perspective;" to January 5. "Lewis
Baltz: Nevada and Other Photographs," an exhibition of recently
acquired photographs and series by Lewis Baltz; to January 19. "Earth’s
Beauty Revealed: The 19th-Century European Landscape;" to January
12. "Photographs from the Peter C. Bunnell Collection," to
October 27. Open Tuesday through Saturday, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sunday
1 to 5 p.m. Highlights tours every Saturday at 2 p.m. www.princetonartmuseum.org.
School, Robertson Hall, 609-258-1651. "After September 11,"
explores how the work of area artists has been influenced by the events
surrounding September 11, 2001, curated by Kate Somers. Open Monday
to Friday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. To December 1.
609-771-2198. Art faculty exhibition of painting, drawing, sculpture,
ceramics, jewelry, computer graphics, fiber art, video, and animation.
Gallery hours are Monday through Friday, noon to 3 p.m.; Thursday
7 to 9 p.m.; and Sunday, 1 to 3 p.m. To October 4.
Lawrenceville, 609-620-6026. In the Hutchins Rotunda, "Building
a Teaching Collection: New Acquisitions in Photography" with works
by Eugene Atget, Harry Callahan, Emmet Gowin, Philip-Lorca DiCorcia,
and Chuck Close. Opening reception is Friday, October 11, 7 p.m. for
the show that runs to November 18. Gallery hours, Monday to Friday,
9 a.m. to noon; and 1 to 4:30 p.m.; Wednesday and Saturday, 9 a.m.
New Brunswick, 732-932-2222. "Flying Colors Take Wing," a
show by A.R.T. featuring 100 paintings by physically-challenged artists.
The exhibition coincides with the launch of the book "Flying Colors"
by A.R.T. founder and director Tim Lefens (Beacon Press) which celebrates
the artists, and the revolutionary techniques that enable people with
the most severe physical challenges to express themselves creatively.
Gallery open Monday to Friday, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. To October 31.
609-490-7550. Annual faculty exhibit with works by Tim Trelease, paintings
and photographs by Joan Krejcar Sharma, video and installation by
Michael Maxwell, and video by Kym Kulp. The gallery is open Monday
to Friday, 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. To October 11.
Library Place, 609-497-7990. "Celebration," paintings by Lee
Rumsey inspired by music, dance, and photography. Gallery hours are
Monday to Saturday, 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.; Sunday, 2 to 8 p.m. To
Brunswick, 732-932-7237. Exhibitions include: "Sonia Delaunay:
La Moderne," celebrating the accomplishments of the key figure
(1885 to 1979) in the development of 20th-century abstraction; to
December 28. "The National Association of Women Artists Collection
at Rutgers," to December 8. "Identity and Resistance: Abstract
Painting from the Dodge Collection," to November 17. "Ben
Shahn: The Rilke Portfolio," to December 31. "Keeping Up Appearances:
Fashion in 19th Century France," to November 7. Museum hours are
Tuesday through Friday, 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.; Saturday and Sunday,
noon to 5 p.m. Spotlight tours every Sunday at 2 and 3 p.m. Admission
$3 adults; under 18 free; and free on the first Sunday of every month.
609-773-0881. Wildlife and landscape photographs by Princeton photographer
Richard Demler. Gallery is open Thursday to Sunday, noon to 6 p.m.
To October 27.
"Icons of Power," a solo exhibition of paintings by Anne Coper
Dobbins. Gallery is open Thursday to Sunday, noon to 5 p.m. To October
Fall exhibition features New Jersey artists, Alexander Farnham and
Charles McVicker. Farnham, a noted landscape painter, is known for
his interest in patterns of light and shadow. Open Wednesday to Sunday,
noon to 5 p.m. To November 17.
"I am a compulsive painter," says McVicker, who teaches at
the College of New Jersey. "I have always loved the experience
of drawing and painting, and whenever possible, I paint every day."
His most recent still life and landscape paintings seek to capture
a special light and time of day, and the mood these evoke.
"Melville Stark and the Pennsylvania Impressionists." Part
of proceeds benefit the Michener Museum of Art’s New Hope satellite
art center. Open Wednesday to Saturday, 10 a.m. to 6 p.m.; Sunday,
noon to 6 p.m. To November 3.
Suite 208, Morrisville, 215-295-8444. "Artists 4," a shared
show of prints, drawings, and sculptures by the group of four Bucks
County artists Diane Wilkin, Bill Shamlian, David Kime, and William
Double. Gallery hours are Monday to Friday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Saturday,
1 to 5 p.m. To October 19.
Print Interpretations," an exhibition of archival inkjet prints
by Ruane Miller, Dallas Piotrowski, Fay Sciarra, Madelaine Shellaby,
and William Vandever. Gallery hours are Monday to Friday 9 a.m. to
5 p.m. To November 1.
Tom Kelly, Jack Knight, and Isabella Natale, an introspective and
humorous show by three area artists. Also "Crowns: Portraits of
Black Women in Church Hats" by Michael Cunningham. Museum hours
are Tuesday through Saturday, 11 a.m. to 3 p.m.; Sunday, 1 to 4 p.m.
To November 10.
"Vessels," an exhibit of sculpture and photographs by Rory
Mahon. Open Monday to Thursday, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. To November 7.
New Brunswick, 732-846-5777. "From the Old World to the New World,"
recent additions to the collection featuring works by nine Hungarian
Americans who emigrated to the U.S. between 1920 and 1957. Artists
are Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Bertha and Elena De Hellenbranth, Sandor Sugor,
Emil Kelemen, Willy Pogany, Tibor Gergely, Zoltan Poharnok, and Vincent
Korda. Museum hours are Tuesday to Saturday, 11 a.m. to 4 p.m.; and
Sunday, 1 to 4 p.m. $5 donation. Show runs to April, 2003.
732-745-4177. "Uncommon Clay: New Jersey’s Architectural Terra
Cotta Industry," an exhibition of artifacts and written and oral
histories of New Jersey’s once booming architectural ceramics industry.
Open Tuesday through Friday, 1 to 4 p.m.; and Sunday, 1 to 4 p.m.
On view to May 30, 2003.
908-735-8415. "Fifty Years: The History of the Hunterdon Museum
of Art." Museum hours are Tuesday to Sunday, 11 a.m. to 5 p.m.
To November 17.
215-340-9800. "Let Us Now Praise Famous Men," the seminal
1930s collaboration by writer James Agee and photographer Walker Evans.
Show features 76 Evans photographs, prose from Agee, along with letters
and notebooks documenting their process. Admission $10 adult; $7 students.
Open Tuesday to Friday, 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.; Saturday and Sunday,
10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; and Wednesday evenings to 9 p.m. To October 13.
"Earth, River, and Light," an exhibition of notable and rarely
exhibited Pennylvania Impressionist works drawn from the private holdings
of regional collectors. The touring show originates at the Michener
and is accompanied by a definitive study of Pennslyvania Impressionism
by Brian Peterson. To December 29. $6 adult; $3 child.
"Homer’s Odyssey," a group exhibit by the Princeton Artists
Alliance, on view in the Community Gallery. The exhibition of mixed-media
works was developed by 25 artist members of PAA to reflect on Homer’s
epic poem. Museum open Wednesday through Sunday, noon to 5 p.m. To
Route 1, North Brunswick, 732-249-2077. "Barnscapes: The Changing
Face of Agriculture in New Jersey," photographs of New Jersey
barns and farmlands, with 42 images by New Jersey landscape photographer
Louise Rosskam. On view to January 17. $4 adults, $2 children.
609-292-6464. "Searching: New Jersey Photographers and September
11," works by Stanley Brick, Donna Clovis, Donald Lokuta, and
Phil McAuliffe; to November 24. "River of Leisure: Recreation
Along the Delaware," to November 3. "Cruising Down the Delaware:
Natural History You Can See," an introduction to New Jersey’s
natural features by the historic waterway, to November 10. Museum
hours are Tuesday through Saturday, 9 a.m. to 4:45 p.m.; Sunday noon
to 5 p.m.
State Museum’s Ethnographic Collection," to September 15. "A
Decade of Collecting, Part 1," to January 5. On extended view:
"Art by African-Americans: A Selection from the Collection;"
"New Jersey’s Native Americans: The Archaeological Record;"
"Delaware Indians of New Jersey;" "The Sisler Collection
of North American Mammals;" "Of Rock and Fire;" "Neptune’s
Architects;" "The Modernists;" "New Jersey Ceramics,
Silver, Glass and Iron;" "Historical Archaeology of Colonial
New Jersey;" "Washington Crossing the Delaware."
Street, Trenton, 609-394-9535. Woodblock prints by Idaherma Williams,
an artist who prints all her editions without a press as a reflection
of her respect for the beauty of the woodcut. Sales benefit the New
Jersey State Museum. Meet the artist Sunday, September 29, 3 to 5
p.m. Show runs to November 3.
West State Street, Trenton, 609-292-6464. "A Decade of Collecting:
Works from the Museum’s Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Natural
History Collections." Open Monday to Friday, 9 a.m. to 4:45 p.m.,
to January 5, 2003.
for "A Christmas Carol" on Sunday, October 13, at 6 p.m.,
and Monday, October 14, at 7:30 p.m., for the show that runs December
13 to 22. Director J.C. Gibriano seeks 25 adults and children age
8 and up. Call 732-873-2710.
its annual holiday art sale, "Sauce for the Goose." Deadline
is October 31 to be considered for the December sale that includes
a mix of fine art and functional crafts. For information on becoming
an exhibitor, stop by the Arts Council at 102 Witherspoon Street or
list of New Jersey’s Ten Most Endangered Historic Places. Call 609-392-6409
for nomination form or on the website www.preservationnj.org.
Deadline is Saturday, November 30.
trip through the Hamilton/Trenton Marsh on Saturday, October 19. Day
trip is led by Mary Leck, Rider University biologist. Send SASE for
directions and details by October 14 to Central Jersey Sierra Club,
Box 392, Rocky Hill 08553. Call in advance to rent a canoe or kayak
from Paint Island Canoe and Kayak, 609-324-8200, mention Sierra Club
trip for group rate of $36 per canoe. Meet at 11:45 a.m. at the Bordentown
Boat Ramp to view safety video and prepare for departure by 12:30.
Trip will last approximately four hours. Information 609-688-0282.
October 26, to discover the art and music of Harlem. The day will
include a guided tour of the Studio Museum of Harlem, an architectural
walking tour, and a matinee performance of the acclaimed musical review
"Harlem Song" at the famous Apollo Theater. Trip runs from
10:30 a.m. to 8 p.m. $85. People of all ages are welcome. Preregister,
packets and register participants at the Hyatt Hotel, Route 1, on
Thursday, October 17, 11 a.m. to 2 p.m., or 2 to 5 p.m.; Friday, October
18, 3 to 8 p.m.; and Saturday, October 19, 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. Volunteers
call Bev Cassel, 215-493-8511 or e-mail email@example.com
seek volunteer tutors and host families to work with foreign graduate
students, visiting scholars, and their spouses on improving their
conversational English and adjustment to life in the U.S. Call Hanna
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