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A Cellist, On the Line

This article by Elaine Strauss was published in U.S. 1 Newspaper

on January 7, 1998. All rights reserved.

Sure, it’s pianist Garrick Ohlsson’s show when he solos

in Brahms’ Piano Concerto No. 2 to open the New Jersey Symphony

Orchestra’s

three-week Brahms festival. The four-movement work is a compendium

of pianistic difficulties that might slip by unnoticed, so well does

the music flow. The demanding piano part exists within a relatively

sunny piece.

Yet pianist Ohlsson is not the only instrumentalist who faces a

demanding

part in the concerto. The piece opens with a horn solo. Principal

hornist Lucinda Lewis bears the unforgiving responsibility not only

of getting a sometimes finicky instrument to work, but getting it

to do its job at precisely the right moment. And in the third

movement,

a solo cello comes to the fore, providing one of the most richly

romantic

and hummable passages in the concerto. Principal cellist Jonathan

Spitz puts himself and his performing skills on the line at that time.

The New Jersey Symphony Orchestra (NJSO), conducted by Music Director

Zdenek Macal, pairs the piano concerto with Brahms’ Symphony No. 2.

The program is set for Thursday, January 8, at 8 p.m., in New

Brunswick’s

State Theater. It will also be given on Saturday, January 10, at 8

p.m., and on Sunday, January 11, at 3 p.m., at Newark’s New Jersey

Performing Arts Center. Within a three-week period the NJSO mounts

all four of Brahms’ symphonies, as well as his concerto for violin,

the piano concerto, and the New Jersey premiere of David Noon’s

"Tempus

Fugit, Vivat Brahms." The programs fall within 12-month observance

of the 100th anniversary of Brahms’ death in April, 1897.

In a telephone interview from his Tenafly home, cellist Spitz explains

that the cello solo in Brahms’ Piano Concerto No. 2 has loomed large

in his life. "It was a crucial part of my history in getting my

current position," he says. Spitz played the Brahms concerto

excerpt

when he auditioned to join the orchestra in 1984. He played it again

in 1991, when he auditioned for the position of acting principal

cello,

and then once again in 1994, when he auditioned for the permanent

post of principal cellist. (The older name for the cello, the

violoncello,

seems to be making a comeback, part of the period intrument movement.)

"We learn the solo to play for the audition," says Spitz.

"At the audition you play it by yourself. Then it’s a new and

different experience to play it in the context of an orchestra. It’s

more inspiring to play with a piano soloist."

"The cello solo is nostalgic," says Spitz. "Brahms has

a sad, dark quality. Though the solo is not underlyingly tragic, it’s

suited to the dark sound of the cello. When I think of the Brahms’

solo cello part, maybe `deep’ is a good word to describe it. What’s

nice about playing Brahms is that he understood the voice of each

instrument so well. The thing that makes the solo easy is that all

I have to do is to make my instrument sound like a cello while in

some cases the instrument has to sound like a human voice, or make

the sounds of nature.

"It’s the most famous cello solo in the repertoire," Spitz

says. "There’s not a principal cello in a major orchestra in the

world who hasn’t had to play that excerpt in an audition." He

describes as "standard orchestral audition fare" for cellists,

in addition to the Brahms piano concerto solo, a passage from Richard

Strauss’ "Don Quixote," and one from Giacomo Rossini’s

"William

Tell Overture." Beyond that, Spitz says, orchestras tend to have

divergent requirements. Orchestral auditions for all string

instruments,

he notes, always include an excerpt from a Brahms symphony or

concerto.

Now 39, Spitz grew up in Ridgewood, New Jersey. He remembers his

mother,

a pianist, playing recitals with a cellist when he was very young.

"I first saw the instrument when I was five," Spitz says,

"and I couldn’t stop talking about it. There was no Suzuki in

those days." Spitz’s interest in cello precedes the widespread

use of the Suzuki method developed in Japan, where children begin

their study of string instruments as toddlers, and a five-year-old

is classified as an older beginner. "I was given a cello when

I was seven," Spitz says, "and was always real eager about

it. By the time I was 14, I knew that was where I had to go."

Spitz studied at Philadelphia’s Curtis Institute, the

crucible of instrumental performers. He spent three summers at

Marlboro,

the Vermont chamber music haven begun by pianist Rudolf Serkin, who

for many years was head of Curtis. Except for a three-year hiatus,

he has been a member of the New Jersey Symphony Orchestra since 1988.

He made his New York recital debut at Carnegie Hall’s Weill Recital

Hall in 1990 as winner of the Artists International Competition.

"I’ve always been open to anything that crosses my path that seems

interesting in ways not necessarily limited to the cello," Spitz

says. He has looked into various mind-body works over the last 15

years — self-hypnosis, yoga and sensory awareness, a practice

of German origin. "Yoga is part of my life," he says.

Avocationally,

Spitz is an avid golfer.

Principal cellist of the NJSO since 1991, Spitz describes his duties,

first and foremost, as deciding on bowings. In other words, he works

out whether the members of the cello section should draw their bow

across the strings of the instrument, "downbow," pulling away

from their body, or "upbow," pushing toward their body. The

sound is slightly different when the direction changes, with downbow

generally sounding stronger and upbow generally sounding lighter.

Sometimes, for effect, string players use a succession of upbows,

or of downbows. For a uniform sound within the section all players

must move their bows in the same direction. Consistent bow directions

within an instrumental section contribute more to a consistent sound

than do uniform right hand fingerings or playing in the same place

on one of a string instrument’s four strings, or even playing on the

same string. In developing bowings Spitz coordinates with the other

string principals, to produce the desired musical effects.

"Working out the bowings is very time consuming," Spitz says.

"We cover so much repertoire in a season. There are a lot of

bowings

in music in our library, but if it’s not something I went over

personally

in the past, I like to reconsider."

As he looks over Brahms’ Fourth Symphony, which appears on the second

of the three NJSO Brahms festival programs, Spitz marvels at the

complexity

of the task. "It’s remarkable to me," he says, "how

difficult

it is to work out the bowing in terms of rhythm, intonation, and

clarity

because of the way Brahms writes the part technically. He’s similar

to Beethoven: every note in every part is important; there’s no

filler.

Brahms is very full. He’s contrapuntal and dense. A lot is happening

in all the different voices. You have to play your part in a way to

make it clear, but in a way so it doesn’t obliterate the other parts.

It’s a lot like playing chamber music. But fortunately there’s a

conductor

in whom we have a lot of faith to guide us through. While each of

us has a vision of the piece, it’s important to commit oneself to

playing the conductor’s version.

"Bowings differ with different conductors," Spitz says.

"Macal

wants a rich, cantabile sound, so with him you need to use more bow

than with some conductors." To make the full, singing sound that

Macal desires, the bow must be drawn over the string more quickly

than for a flightier sound. When the bow is moved more quickly, the

player reaches its extremes earlier than when the bow is moved more

slowly, and a change of direction from upbow to downbow, or vice

versa,

must be made relatively frequently.

Macal’s musical taste affects bowing in another way,

Spitz explains. For him, there is a big difference between a passage

marked "piano," meaning "soft," or

"pianissimo,"

meaning "very soft." "With Macal," says Spitz,

"`pianissimo’

is very soft, but `piano’ has a big range. `Piano’ is soft, but not

wispy or too delicate. Macal’s `piano’ uses more bow than many

conductors,

so you have to change bow more frequently."

Selecting bowings is only one of the tasks of the principal, says

Spitz. "It’s a more amorphous thing," he adds. "It’s hard

to define. You’re really concerned with getting unanimity of phrasing

within the section. And you have to work at integrating the section

effectively into the orchestra. Sometimes the cellos accompany a

delicate

wind passage, sometimes they take charge of the orchestra. You must

be responsive to what the orchestra is doing, and what the conductor

wants. The artistic guidance for a section is subservient to the

conductor’s

needs, but it’s still a leadership role.

Spitz has learned that the cello section of which he is the principal

is considered one of the strongest in the country. "I get that

feedback from guest conductors who’ve been around," he explains.

As principal, Spitz also has tenure. Tenure is awarded after two years

in the position. "If I start to do a lousy job, they could get

rid of me," Spitz says, "but there has to be a strong

consensus."

Seating within the NJSO is a matter of permanent assignment, with

more accomplished players occupying chairs at the front of the

section.

While skill, not seniority, determines the seating, players who sit

further back in the section are not permitted to challenge higher

ranked instrumentalists for their seat, as happens in summer music

camps.

In addition to his position at the NJSO, Spitz performs with other

orchestras, among them Orpheus, the chamber orchestra spotlighted

on public television recently. "Orpheus is a great education

because

there’s no conductor," says Spitz. "We each bring our vision

of a piece to the orchestra, but you have to move the rehearsal

process

along, and not just use rehearsal as an ego trip. Orpheus has affected

how I handle being principal of the New Jersey Symphony Orchestra.

The responsibilities are similar. You learn a certain combination

of leadership and autonomy. With Macal there’s always a sense of

pulse,

but he brings much flexibility to romantic music. My experience in

Orpheus reinforces the skills you need to keep a good sense of time,

but stay flexible."

Spitz maintains flexible boundaries about the repertoire he plays.

"The range of music I deal with," he says, "is the best

part of my life. It’s so big, it’s impossible to have any sense of

boredom or routine. The more that I do, the richer I feel

artistically.

I love the standard orchestral repertoire, and my pleasure has

increased

as I continue to play it. I love the chamber repertoire and the

obscure

works I play with Orpheus."

In 1995, Spitz soloed with vocalist Bobby McFerrin at the NJSO

performance

of a Vivaldi concerto for two cellos, an event difficult to classify.

Spitz played his cello; McFerrin vocalized the second cello part.

Spitz delighted in performing with McFerrin. "It was a tremendous

feat vocally," he says. "It didn’t sound like two cellos.

It gave greater clarity to the counterpoint. I loved the flexibility

that was forced on me. We had one rehearsal and had to sound like

we were playing the same piece."

Last season Spitz enjoyed himself as soloist with the NJSO in the

Dvorak cello concerto. "It was an opportunity to make my own

statement

about a piece that is a standard part of the repertoire. I felt

privileged

and fired up"

Spitz is also cellist with the Leonardo Trio. His wife, Erica

Kiesewetter,

a freelance violinist active in New York, joins him in the ensemble,

along with pianist Cameron Grant. Kiesewetter comes from a long line

of violinists with an ancestor in Schubert’s circle. At the turn of

the century, an ancestor’s Stradivarius violin became known as the

Kiesewetter Stradivarius; it is now played by Russian violinist Maxim

Vengerov.

Spitz’s six-year-old daughter, Gabriela, plays cello

and studies with a Tenafly teacher. "I practice with her, but

I don’t pressure her," says Spitz. "I never say a word to

her about cello that her teacher hasn’t said." Son Sebastian,

age two, Spitz reports, "gets very excited when we start

practicing

cello. My wife and I will try to steer him away from the cello,"

Spitz says.

Watching his young daughter at the cello helps Spitz identify what

he considers to be the hardest characteristic of the instrument —

what he calls, "the changes over time as one’s skill level

changes.

"First of all," he says, "it’s hard to draw the bow so

you get a clean sound. The next obstacle is playing in tune on an

instrument that has no frets, no guideposts. It becomes a combination

of muscle memory, being guided by your ears, and a certain amount

of luck. The idea is to try to make luck as small a factor as

possible.

The chief difficulty in cello is shifting from low to high on one

string." In other words, the problem is to slide downwards along

the string, stopping at precisely the point that will produce the

desired pitch.

Spitz has developed a method for accomplishing this. With luck,

daughter

Gabriela’s teacher will explain it to her so Spitz can pursue the

matter when he practices with her. "It’s sort of like Zen and

the Art of Archery," Spitz says. "You have to have a very

strong focus on the target note. You need an image in your mind of

the pitch, and a memory of what that note feels like. You need to

practice the note you’re shifting to, where your shoulders and arms

are, and what the vibrato feels like. You need a good awareness of

what your bow is doing. It’s important not to be too preoccupied with

how to get from point A to point B. That can make the target foggy.

The mechanics of the shift are secondary to your awareness of the

target. What I like about this method is that it works under pressure.

The way I articulate it is my own, but I suspect that it’s an amalgam

of many people’s ideas."

Like the smooth big cello solo in the Brahms Piano Concerto, mastering

Spitz’s shifting technique is not as easy as it appears. "It takes

a half hour to explain it," he says, "and a year to get

it."

— Elaine Strauss

Brahms Festival, New Jersey Symphony Orchestra,

State Theater, New Brunswick, 800-ALLEGRO. Featured artist is Garrick

Ohlsson on piano performing the Concerto No. 2 in B-flat major. $10

to $48. Thursday, January 8, 8 p.m.

Brahms Festival, New Jersey Symphony Orchestra,

State Theater, New Brunswick, 800-ALLEGRO. Violinist Gil Shaham is

featured in Brahms’ Concerto in D Major. $12 to $52. Thursday,

January 15, 8 p.m.

Brahms Festival, New Jersey Symphony Orchestra,

State Theater, New Brunswick, 800-ALLEGRO. Zdenek Macal conducts

Brahms’

Symphony No. 1 and Symphony No. 3. $10 to $48. Saturday, January

31, 8 p.m.


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